Trch t cuon "K V PHU CHNH AI THAN NGUYEN VAN TNG (1824 - 1886) -- TH -- VAI NET VE CON NGI, TAM HON & T TNG

(ban th 2)                  

 

                          GIAI TRIEU...

 

                        Tam thap nien lai ph k kinh (1)

                        Vo oan da ban bach sau sinh

                        K khai tam sac, van (2) loi bien

                        Gia thnh song xuy, ke khuyen kinh

                        Sn knh (3) van trung thng (4) thuy lien

                        Than tam nhat dang (5) luyen an nh

                        Th phi nhien pho (6) thien thu hau 

                        Xa tac quan vng thuc trong khinh? (7)

 

(1) Cac d ban: minh/kinh (k minh? k kinh?).

(2) Cac d ban: van/phong (van loi? phong loi?).

(3) Cac d ban: knh/sac?

(4) Cac d ban: thng/minh?

(5) Cac d ban: nhat dang/bat nh?

(6) Cac d ban: nhien pho/pho d?

(7) Bai th nay a c truyen tung t sau ngay Kinh o Quat Khi (23-5 At dau, 1885), nh mot mat lenh phoi hp gia phong trao Can vng vu trang va nhng ngi lai; sau o, bai th ch c ghi lai bon cau cuoi vi ban dch khong ro y, b xuyen tac (xem Phan Tran Chuc, "Vua Ham Nghi", Nxb. Chnh Ky, Ha Noi - 1951; Nxb. Thuan Hoa tai ban - 1995, tr. 83 - 84). Do bai th c truyen khau, nen co mot vai ch b d biet cac d ban, nhng y ngha van khong thay oi nh (1), (2), (3)... Ngoai ra, con mot so ban khac, in, xuat ban nhieu sach bao, thng ch trch dch bon cau cuoi (xem: Nguyen [Ton That] Manh Hao, K yeu Hoi ngh khoa hoc ve "Nhom chu chien trong Trieu nh Hue va Nguyen Van Tng", HSP. TP. HCM., 1996, tr. 90; Hai Au, "Vua Ham Nghi", Nxb. Van Nghe TP. HCM., 2000, tr.124-127; Lng An, ban lu tr gom ca tam cau...).

            Trch t cuon "Vua Ham Nghi" cua Phan Tran Chuc (sach a dan):

            "Muon pho ta tam s mnh trong luc kho khan nay, [Nguyen Van - ngi chu thch chua them] Tng co lam mot thien ng luat nay van con bon cau truyen tung:

                        Sn tac (*) thien trung thng (*) thuy lien

                        Than tam nhat dang luyen an nh

                        Th phi nhien pho thien thu hau

                        Xa tac, quan vng thuc trong khinh?

 

                        (Xe gia ngan trung lan dam xanh

                        Long toi rieng luyen chon an nh

                        Phai, chang, pho mac ngan sau luan

                        Vua, nc, oi ng, hoi trong khinh?).

Trong may cau th nay, [Nguyen Van] Tng co y noi rang mnh s d khong i theo xa gia la v con muon lai e duy tr xa tac. i vi , ang nao phai, la tuy theo s phan oan i sau. V, vua vi nc, cha han a ang nao ang khinh, ang trong".

            (Phan Tran Chuc, "Vua Ham Nghi", Nxb. Chnh Ky, Ha Noi - 1951. Trch theo sach tai ban cua Nxb. Thuan Hoa, 1995, tr. 83 - 84).

 


 

           

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

(*) Tac (?) [con oc la "tai"]: at bien ai (THV., sd., tap ha, tr. 223 va 239; viet giong nhau nhng tuy theo cach oc ma co ngha khac nhau). ung ra, theo Phan Tran Chuc, la "sac", nhng b sai loi in an. Con ch "thng" (lo ngh) phai oi vi ch "luyen" (thng men khong n ri bo) mi that chnh - tng ng, bo sung y ngha cho nhau.

                Ve ch "thng", xin xem hai bai th, so 45 va 47.

 


 

CHIA TACH TRIEU CHNH...

 

Ba mi nam qua, [qua la] ph pham bao nhieu tam tr! (1)

[Vao luc] na [em, cai] em khong ngay that [ay, bon giac va                              ta ao] ep bc [khien] noi buon [uat] day len

C [Phap] m ra ba mau, may [va] sam [quyen] bien

[Cai] kep tay e tra tan nghe theo [cai] roi cap, ga [va] cho                                                 kinh hai

ng mon [tren rng] nui [dai va xanh ngat] van trung, lo                                                lang [cho] kieu (xe vua) [von d luon] kn ao

Long [cua] ke be toi [cung] mot dang the [nh the], thng                                                men nen khong n ri bo san son

ung, sai, [le] ay [xin] gi [cho] cai mai sau [co tnh] nghn                                                 thu (muon i) [nhan nh, anh gia]

at nc, nha vua, ieu g ang [xem] trong, [xem] nhe [ay]?

 

 

 

           

 

 

 


 

            (1) Xin xem phan chu thch ban dch di dang th.

                Sau bai nay, chung toi chu yeu at cac chu thch di ban dch ngha. Tuy vay, hau het ban nhuan sac dch th (khoang 45 bai au) va ban dch th (khoang 21 bai sau) eu co them tieu muc CHU THCH BO SUNG, bi chung toi van xem ban dch th phai i oi vi ban dch ngha. Va lai, mac du chu thch ban dch th (hay ban nhuan sac) ch danh cho viec chuyen lai ngon ng th, nhng trong qua trnh thc hien khau cuoi, lai nay sinh yeu cau chu thch them cho ban dch ngha. Xin vui long xem chu thch ca hai.

                Nhan ay, cung xin tha trc: ve cac ban nhuan sac, dch th, ngoai viec thoat niem cho nhac tnh n ieu nhng cung khong kho oc (kho oc), chung toi hoan toan theo luat the th trong nguyen tac (van, oi...).

 


 

             TAN TAC TRIEU NH...

 

            Ba chuc nam qua ph tr mnh (a)

            Na em - gian - ta (b) ep buon sinh

            C m ba mau (c), may sam bien (d)

            Kep nghe roi cap, ga cho kinh ()

            Nui biec (e) van trung thng kieu Ng (g)

            Long son (h) mot the luyen san nh (i)

            Phai, chang, ay gi nghn thu luan (k)

            Theo nc - pho vua, au trong, khinh (l)?

 

            CHIA TACH TRIEU CHNH...

 

            Ba mi nam ph may le khon (1)

            Bat lng, khuya (2) ep day noi hn (3)

            C m ba mau (4), quyen bien sam (5)

            Kep nghe roi cap, cho kinh hon (6)

            ng nui (7) van trung lo kieu biec (8)

            Long toi mot dang gi (9) san son (10)

            ung, sai, ay gi nghn sau luan (11)

            Luyen nc - pho vua, au trong hn (12)?

 

                                                TRAN XUAN AN

                                                        dch th

 

 

CHU THCH VA TRNH BAY CACH DCH TH:

 

            (a) Ph tr mnh (dch thoat lay van). Nguyen ngha: ph pham, hao ph bao nhieu la kinh lch, tam tr.

            (b) Na em-gian-ta: Vo-oan-da ban. oi chieu vi boi canh lch s va xet van canh toan bai, khong the dch "vo oan" la "vo c" c. Xem (k).

            (c) Ba mau: tam sac. ay, ch c nc Phap treo tren k ai kinh thanh Hue sau em Kinh o Quat Khi, 22-23.5 At dau (1885).

            (d) Ban dch nay van the hien s cam nhan hai ch "phong loi" theo ngha cua van canh toan bai va can c vao ke hoach khang chien (t 1864) cua Nguyen Van Tng, khong theo ngha s dung thieu chnh xac ("phong loi" khac vi "van loi thi tiet": thi van anh hung ra tay - xem ao Duy Anh, T ien Han - Viet, Nxb. Trng Thi, 1957, quyen ha, tr. 123, 540). "Phong loi" hay "van loi" cung van la hnh anh ch lc lng khang chien vu trang do Ton That Thuyet lanh ao.

            () Kep (gia), roi cap (song xuy) la dung cu tra tan cua Phap. Ke tra tan bang kep da theo li ghi cung cua ke tra tan bang roi cap e khai thac tu binh, tu chnh tr. Ga, cho: ch lu khong xng lam ngi trc s tra tan cua giac. Cau nay b xuyen tac ch "gia" (:ken la [cua tre con]), nham boi nho Ton That Thuyet. 

            (e) Nui biec; dch chnh xac la "ng nui" (sn knh) hoac "sac nui", "mau nui" (sn sac). Xem (g).

            (g) Kieu Ng; "thuy lien" nguyen ban: xe, kieu kn ao, con goi la xe loan (xe co chim loan lam bieu trng hoac co tieng luc lac tng trng cho tieng chim loan, hoac ch la cach goi da theo ien tch co). Dch thay ch la "kieu Ng", chuyen y cho "sn sac", "sn knh". Xem (e).

            (h) Long son; dch thay ch, le ra "than tam" phai dch sat ngha la "long be toi", "long toi". Xem (i).

            (i) San nh; le ra phai dch "an nh" la "san son" (san chau vua, thi xa xa c lat gach o). "Than tam" va "an nh" c dch thay ch, ghep y nh (e) vi (g).

            (k) Nguyen van: thien thu hau (nghn thu sau; cai mai sau co tnh muon i ma sach s va cong luan khong quen c). Ban dch tieng Viet nay ch dch thoat, sot y va them ch "luan" (ban xet, bnh pham), theo an y. Ve cau tao ng, xem (b).

            (l) Theo an y, co them hai ch "theo" va "pho". "Theo nc" la theo van nc, tnh hnh gia ta va giac Phap, sc manh quat khi cua phong trao au tranh vu trang Can vng (anh) ma thng thuyet, au tranh chnh tr (am).

            (1), (2) Xem chu thch ben tren: (a), (b),

            (3) Ep day noi hn (bach sau sinh). "Sau" la buon rau, buon ba, buon uat, buon nghen... "Sau hai" ngi ta van dch la moi gian [d] nh bien (moi sau uat day song khon nguoi), [THV., sd., tap ha, tr. 190]. ay dch la "noi hn" ("noi ngam hn"), theo ng canh, theo an y.

            (4) Xem chu thch ban dch tren: (c).

            (5) Bien; dch ca an y, thanh "quyen bien".

            (6) Xem chu thch ban dch tren: ().

            (7) ng nui: "sn knh", ng mon tren nui rng. Y toan cau: ca nui rng bat ngan eu lo lang, cham lo, lo ngh ve Ham Nghi.

            (8), (10) Xem chu thch ban dch tren: (g), (i).

            (9) Luyen: thng men nen khong n ri bo (THV., sd., tap thng, tr. 526). Dch la "gi" bi muon dch ca an y cua "nhat dang" (cung mot dang the, mot the thc).

            (11), (12) Xem cac chu thch ban dch tren: (k), (l).

 

            B chu: Ngoai ra, chung toi con thay co ban dch cua Lng An vi hai cau thc va hai cau luan nh sau:

                                Ken hai tieng thoi kinh ga cho

                                Ba sac c bay am at tri

                                ng nui nghn trung bang gia ng

                                Them son mot quyet hng long toi

t ban phien am giong het nh tren, ch khac hai ch: "xuyen" (xuyen qua, bang bang chay nhanh, re ra, m loi trong long); "thien" (nghn):

                                Sn knh thien trung xuyen thuy lien

                Ch "gia" co ngha la "ken la". "Xuy" la "thoi". Ch "bien" co ngha la "eu khap", "khap ca, ni nao cung co".

                Tat nhien, ch la cung am oc nhng khac mat ch vi "gia" la cai kep tay e tra tan, "xuy" la cai roi, "bien" la dung mu chc la e ng pho vi tnh huong (quyen bien, ch "quyen" trong Du Can vng).

                Va chang hieu v sao "ken nghe hai tieng thoi", neu dch sat ngha "gia thnh song xuy"?

                Chung toi con hieu, theo van l, neu dung ch "xuyen" th ch "knh" phai la "gng" (tam knh), ch mat tri, mat trang:

                                Gng nui van trung soi kieu ng

                                (Gng nui van trung xuyen kieu ng)

                Co the chang, chnh l lai ban dch Lng An:

                                Ph ba mi nam nem trai i

                                Bat lng, khuya ep noi sau khi

                                C m ba mau, ren khap sam

                                Ken vang hai tieng, cho rung ri

                                Gng nui van trung soi kieu Ng

                                Long toi mot dang gi san Ngi

                                ung sai xin gi ngan thu xet

                                Ben nc ben vua, au nang vi?

                Chnh hai ch "nhat dang" (hoac "bat nh") a quyet nh cac ch sai biet cac d ban (do truyen khau). "Nhat dang" hoac "bat nh", khong co d ban nao co hai ch nao khac.

 

Boi canh lch s cung la c s cho viec mao muoi hieu nh, nham xac nh ung ban goc, nguyen tac cua ong (xin xem bai viet Vai chu iem s hoc s lc can thiet khi cam nhan bai Giai Trieu cua Nguyen Van Tng).

Sau khi can nhac, thay ban chnh thc, theo cho chung toi biet, la hp l va pho bien hn ca.

 

           


 

             Hai cau bo sung:

            CHIA TACH  TRIEU CHNH...

 

            U trung thuy bach thien thu hau? (*)

            Xa tac quan dan thuc trong khinh?

 

            Long trung sau kn, tnh lang, ai to ro [cho] cai mai sau                                [co tnh] nghn thu?

            To Quoc, c vua, nhan dan, au [la le] nang,

                                    au [la le] nhe?

 

             Hai cau bo sung cua bai

            " TAN TAC TRIEU NH..."

 

            Sau kn long trung, sau ai to?

            To Quoc, dan, vua, au trong, khinh?

                                                            (ban nhuan sac)

o la hai cau sa cha? Hoac la hai cau thuoc bai khac? Theo ong Nguyen Xuan Que (hau due Nguyen Van Tng), cuoi bai Giai trieu..., co mot cau chu thch them vi noi dung nh tren cung vi hai ch Manh T, y muon nhac en cau kinh ien cua Nho giao: Dan vi quy, xa tac th chi, quan vi khinh (dan la quy, at nc la th nh, nha vua ch ang xem nhe). Co le chnh la hai dong th nay.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

(*) U: vang ve, yen lang; sau kn. Trung: het long vi ngi; het long vi nc. (Xem ao Duy Anh, T ien Han - Viet, sd., tap ha, tr. 506, 520).


 

VAI CHU IEM S HOC S LC CAN THIET

KHI CAM NHAN BAI GIAI TRIEU...

CUA NGUYEN VAN TNG

 

TRAN XUAN AN

 

(1)

 

T th "chia tach trieu chnh" nhng van "nhat dang" khi t tnh huong ma Du Can vng ghi ro:

"T xa ke sach chong giac khong ngoai ba ieu: anh, gi, hoa. anh th cha co c hoi [ieu kien thc lc - Nct.], gi th kho lng c sc, hoa th chung oi hoi khong biet chan. ng luc s the muon van kho khan nh vay, bat ac d phai dung quyen [quyen bien - Nct.]".

                        (Chu Thien Hoang Minh Giam dch)

Hai bc th Ham Nghi cung Ton That Thuyet t Tan S (Cam Lo, Quang Tr) gi ve cho Nguyen Van Tng (02. 6. At dau) va hoang toc (07. 6. At dau, 1885) cung noi en ke sach quyen bien vi nhiem vu ''ke '' cua Nguyen Van Tng.

Di ay, chung toi se trnh bay nhiem vu lch s ay cua Nguyen Van Tng sau cuoc Kinh o quat khi va that thu (05.07.1885). Nhan o, cung co gang lam sang to them nhng bi kch cac nh iem mau thuan noi bo trieu nh, 1883 1884, trc o, vi s chien thang cua nhom chu chien yeu nc. o la nhng nh iem mau thuan a xay ra trc khi tnh huong lch s i en mot nh iem tot o, cao trao nhat cua mau thuan oi khang ch ta (05.07 06.09.1885), gia mot ben la thc dan Phap, ta ao, bon tay sai (cp nc va ban nc) vi mot ben la lc lng yeu nc, chu chien, Can vng (anh va am)

Chung toi se lay hai cau bo sung cua bai Giai trieu lam hai chu iem ln.

 

             U trung thuy bach thien thu hau?

      Xa tac quan dan thuc trong khinh?

 

             Sau kn long trung, sau ai to ?

      To Quoc, dan, vua, au trong, khinh ?

 

(2)

 

U TRUNG THUY BACH THIEN THU HAU?.

o la noi ban khoan cua Nguyen Van Tng t ngay 23.5. At dau (1885).

2.a.

Qua cac t lieu lch s co tnh cung thi, sau khi oi chieu, loai tr, thay ro Nguyen Van Tng van cong khai, trc tiep au tranh vi De Courcy, De Champeaux, Silvestre, Nguyen Hu o trong hai thang sau em Kinh o Quat Khi (22-23.5. At dau, 1885). Hn the na, ong con ngam ch ao phoi hp vi phong trao Can vng.

2.a.1.

NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 236-237, a ghi ro, tat nhien vi giong ieu va cai nhn cua ngi chep s... Dau vay, qua o, hau the van thay Nguyen Van Tng khang khai, khong he chu khuat phuc khi oi mat vi ke thu a thang tran, vi bon tay sai von a t lau ban linh hon cho quy thc dan va ta ao: Lay quyen tong oc Ha Ninh la Nguyen Hu o thang th Vu Hien ien ai hoc s, sung C mat vien ai than, van sung Bac K kinh lc ai s. Khi ay Hu o a tr ve Ha Noi, o thong Phap la Co-ra-xy [De Courcy - Ngi chu thch, viet tat: Nct.], kham s la Tham-bo [De Champeaux - Nct.] ban noi: Hien nay Bac K lam viec, Hu o ay hieu nhieu, nen trao cho ien ham, sung vien chc, va van sung chc s ay; pham oc, phu, bo, an, cac tnh Bac K cho en cac phu huyen, neu ni nao co khuyet, cho do Nha Kinh lc s chon tau, ch ch nh oat. Nhiep chnh Mien nh, phu chnh Nguyen Van Tng phuc tau viec o la tam thi, ngh nen tam nghe y o ma lam. Van Tng nhan phung du [cua T Du - Nct.] noi: trai bay l do. Lai noi: do ngi tuy viec thoa ban vu hp thi nghi e xng vi li khen cua ngi mi c. V y am ch che Hu o nng ta vao the quan Phap, e c ngoi cao, ma khong phai t ban y do menh lenh cua Trieu nh vay.

(Trc ay Nguyen Van Tng cung Ton That Thuyet cho rang Hu o Ha Noi phan nhieu hay nnh hot, quan Phap rat c vui long; C mat vien nhieu lan em viec tau len, chuan cho khien giang hay trieu ve, Hu o eu c quan Phap che ch, rat la ang ghet.

Ngay thang 7 nam ngoai, khuyen Bui Hu Tao lay viec xay sinh t [cua Nguyen Hu o - Nct.] e tau hac, v muon nhan o e ay Hu o en toi. Hu o cha s bat bnh a lau. Gan ay o thong Phap t Bac ve S quan, tc th trc mi Van Tng va Thuyet en hop. Thuyet ng s cho la han Hu o a co ngam ch the nao, nen mi nh the, cho nen sau khong chu i; ben gay han; en ay [Hu o - Nct.] ve kinh, [y - Nct.] lai i tat en S quan, roi ve nha rieng [cua Hu o tai Hue - Nct.], uy on nhiep chnh Tho Xuan vng Mien nh ti ban vi Van Tng; va [Hu o - Nct.] giem [rang - Nct.] khong ban vi Tho Xuan vng th ng i. Kp khi Hu o ti S Thng bac ma Van Tng o, hai ngi noi chuyen vi nhau, a hi co y khiem hoa; Van Tng phung du nay, li le lai co y che ngam theo kieu b l xuan thu [: be ngoai vi l le khac nhau nh mua xuan vi mua thu - Nct.]. Hu o tiep du, gian lam, nhan o cang them e long).

Qua giong ieu va cach nhn khong c trong sang lam cua nha chep s trieu Nguyen, chung ta gat i kha canh b nhuom mau ca nhan hiem khch, se thay ro, thc chat, o la cuoc au tranh ve van e bo tr quan chc Bac K, van e chong bon tay sai, c hoi. Nguyen Hu o la tieu bieu.

Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, trc o a ac biet em cau xem gio chuyen buom trach Hu o (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 157-158). Ma au ch Nguyen Hu o! Cung mot giuoc vi y, con co Nguyen Trong Hp (sd., tr.157-158), Hoang Cao Khai, Nguyen Huy Lan... (sd., tr. 210, 213 - 214) va bat ng nhat, con la Nguyen Than (con trai Nguyen Tan), Phan nh Bnh!

Thc chat cua van e bo tr nhan s ay, xet cho cung, la van e con hay mat Bac K. o la noi dung cua khoan 7 hoa c Patenotre (1884). Va tai sao luc o, kinh o a that thu, Nguyen Van Tng van khong chap nhan nh quan Phap co kiem c quan Nam nao nen lam hoan cach, co xin hoan cach ay, tc lam hoan cach (sd., tr. 116), ma ch mien cng, xem la tam thi, con oi hoi Phap phai trai bay l do (sd., tr. 236), mac du T Du a chap nhan? Phai chang Nguyen Van Tng ang da vao sc quat khi cua phong trao Can vng ang day len khap ca nc, va theo mat du Ham Nghi t Tan S gi ve: cung y [De Courcy - Nct.] giang ro ve l the, can nhac ve li hai, het long thoa hiep [: hiep ban thoa man oi ben - Nct.], pham nhng khoan g bach thiet, phai chung nhau ban oi (sd., tr. 226)?

Dau trong the ket lch s nh vay, Nguyen Van Tng van au tranh trc dien vi De Courcy, De Champeaux, Nguyen Hu o ma NTL.CB., tap 36, tr. 236 - 237 a ghi, nh a trnh bay phan tren. Viec Nguyen Van Tng phai k phu c vi Silvestre, Nguyen Hu o (30.7.1885) a c mieu ta:

      Phap nhan lap c hoi ong

      Nhng ieu lan hiep kho long y theo

      Van Tng chang khng thuan chieu

      Trai tnh, Hu o mn ieu Bac quy

                              (Hanh Thuc ca, sd., tr.48).

2.a.2.

Mot van e gay can na, la Nguyen Van Tng khong ch phai oi pho vi Phap va bon c hoi, tay sai, ma con phai oi pho vi phe chu hoa, ng au la T Du cung Mien nh (giam quoc, nhiep chnh). Mien nh la mot ngi co t cach hen ha en mc nga tay xin tien kham s Phap, en noi ong Khanh cung cho la nhuc quoc the (NTL.CB., tap 37, sd., tr.43)!

oi vi T Du, Nguyen Van Tng phai lam ra ve a b Ton That Thuyet la doi (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr.224 (1)). Ong trong the ket, nen phai v nh gia ong va Ton That Thuyet cha he ban bac e khi binh em 22 - 23.5. At dau (05.7.1885), mac du ay la cuoc khi binh bat ac d, b Phap ep vao the chang ang ng:

      Bang con y the qua ngang

      Thi ta se lieu quyet ng hn thua!

                                 (Hanh Thuc ca, sd., tr. 36)

Biet se co kha nang b that thu, nhng cung anh lieu may rui vi tri! (Bu Ke, Chuyen trieu Nguyen, sd., tr. 97).

Cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi ch nham phat ong tong noi day Can vng tren toan quoc e au tranh ngoai giao, chnh tr.

Nguyen Van Tng gia v khong biet g het trong em 22.5. At dau, 1885 (NTL. CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 220) e lai lam nhiem vu am phan cua ke , trong khi Ton That Thuyet la ngi i.

Phng thc khong biet g het c Aldophe Delvaux cho la: Ong phu chanh th nhat (Tng) a mien cng hanh ong di anh hng ngong cuong cua ong Thuyet, bat chap moi li khan cau cua me vua T c va ong hoang Hoai c (em vua Thieu Tr) [thay Hong Hu - Nct.] la nhng ngi chong lai cac s van ong cua phai yeu nc (Delvaux, bai Phai bo Phap Hue va nhng phai vien au tien, Nhng ngi ban co o Hue (BAVH., 1916), tap 3, ang Nh Tung dch va mot nhom dch gia khac hieu nh, Nxb. TH., 1997, sd., tr.74). Theo Delvaux, ay la tin tc mat tham cua Phap ma De Champeaux nam c! That ra, Nguyen Van Tng a cho phep va a thay mat vua ra lenh cho Ton That Thuyet chuan b khang chien, lap ao quan Phan Ngha cho them thanh the (1883 - 05.7.1885), e au tranh vi Phap (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 63-64, 220).

2.a.3.

Qua vay, Nguyen Van Tng a lanh ao C mat vien hop ban rat b mat. a en luc khong the khong thc hien ke hoach Nguyen Van Tng, Than Van Nhiep, Nguyen Quynh vach ra, va Nguyen Van Tng a ch than, t nguyen tien hanh bc au t 1864, 1866 (NTL.CB., tap 30, sd., tr. 170 - 172; tap 31, sd., tr. 86 - 89, 103) (2). o la viec m thng ao, xay dng thanh luy Tan S. Khat vong khang chien ay con the hien bai th Benh trung k phong ong ch (bai so 38, sach nay) (3) c viet vao quang thi gian con tieu ph pha bac, khoang nhng nam au cua thap k 70 (the k XIX). Va vao nam 1883, ke hoach o lai c tien hanh (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 64 - 66; Delvaux, bai viet sd., tr. 54). Trong thi iem cu the 1885 nay, Ton That Thuyet cung nh Nguyen Van Tng, ca hai cung nhat dang, nhat tr vi s tong hp phng thc: va khang chien vu trang (anh), va khong biet g (am), phng thc ong a tng au tranh thang li vao cuoi nam 1873, au nam 1874. Thang li ay, ngay ca Quoc trieu chnh bien toat yeu (ban dch tieng Viet cua Quoc s quan trieu Nguyen, Nxb. Thuan Hoa, 1998, tr. 502 - 504) lan Viet Nam s lc (Tran Trong Kim, b. 1999, sd., tr. 545 - 546) eu ghi nhan va trch dan nguyen van cuoc oi thoai gia Nguyen Van Tng vi Philastre mot cach than phuc (4). Con ay la oan oi thoai gia vua T c vi trieu than va Nguyen Van Tng ve phng thc khong biet g ket hp vi tien cong vu trang, sau khi a thanh cong:

Vua bao [...] Viem va Thuyet mua ong nam ngoai [21. 12. 1873 - Nct.] giet c au so giac, lam mat kh the cua  chung, Nguyen Van Tng nhan ay de lam viec; Van Tng noi: tuy co tr ngai mot chut, nhng thc giup c nhieu, ay la li bnh tam khong khoe cong. Viem va Thuyet nen [c - Nct.] phong tc, gia lai chc quan (NTL.CB., tap 33, sd., tr. 26).

o la luc thu hoi lai bon tnh Bac K, sau khi ha sat Francis Garnier trong s tc toi ien cuong cua Puginier, Rheinart va bon du dan trong giao dan (Tsuboi, NNDVPVTH., sd., tr. 117).

Phng thc o, chn nam sau (1882) van con hieu qua, vi cai chet cua Henry Riviere, cung do quan Lu Vnh Phuc ha sat, tai Ha Noi.

Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet lai tien hanh mot lan na, d doi va quyet liet hn, ngay tai kinh o Hue, 1885.

Dau that bai, Nguyen Van Tng, sau 05.7.1885, van tiep tuc au tranh. Bi the va lc so vi 1873, 1874 a ngat ngheo hn, Nguyen Van Tng khong con tam the ung dung nh mi hai nam trc, ma ang vo cung kho tam. De Courcy khong b ha sat! Mang Ca va Toa Kham khong b triet tieu nh mong muon! De Courcy va De Champeaux lai ang nhan danh Trieu nh e thao tung!

Do o, phong trao Can vng vu trang a bung len khap nc!

Quoc ke chia tach trieu chnh nhng van nhat dang, phoi hp b mat nhng rat chat che, la mot sang tao rat tao bao, trong ieu kien the va lc bay gi!

Qua viec trch dan nhng t lieu cua Puginier, theo giao s Nguyen Van Kiem, K yeu Hoi ngh khoa hoc ve e tai Nhom chu chien trong Trieu nh Hue va Nguyen Van Tng, HSP. TP. HCM, 20.6.1996, tr. 14, chung ta thay ro s that lch s, vi s mieu ta cua chnh oi phng, ve no lc cua Nguyen Van Tng: Vua Ham Nghi i theo Thuyet, con phu chnh Tng lai, van gi nguyen chc tc, va sau mot thi gian tra hang, lai tiep tuc co nhng hanh ong oi khang. Chnh theo lenh cua y ma khoang 30.000 giao dan a b hai ch trong vong 2 thang va hn 1.000 ngi khac cung chu chung so phan do cac quan lai thi hanh menh lenh tren....

Delvaux, trong bai viet sach a dan, tr. 57, tr. 79 - 80, oan cuoi tr. 81 - 82, cung mieu ta canh sat ta ao trc va sau 05. 7. 1885, ac biet la sau ngay lch s bi hung ay, tai Bnh nh, Quang Tr, Nghe An. Tran Trong Kim, trong Viet Nam s lc, sd., ban 1964, tr. 554 cung ghi ro: Ton That Thuyet [...] lam Hch Can vng truyen i cac ni [...]. Sach Tay chep rang [...] dan ben ao phai tam ong co va hn hai van ngi b giet.

oi phng a ket an Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet la tan nhan, hieu sat! S tan nhan, hieu sat (hai t nay ve sau cung b Tran Trong Kim xuyen tac!), theo cach noi cua cac gian iep thc dan trong lot ao ta ao, khi ong t luc Phap anh chiem Thuan An (Hue, 1883). Bi ta ao cung chang khac g nhng nam trc o, a Nang, Gia nh, va Hai Dng, Ninh Bnh (5):

      Ngoai thi Tay tac li giang

      Trong thi ta ao chay quanh bon be...

                  (oan Trng, Trung ngha ca, 1866)

Do o, khong the khac c, Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, hai ngi thiet ke chien lc va chien thuat cho cong cuoc khang chien chong Phap bay gi, vi t cach la hai ngi lanh ao cao nhat C mat vien luc ay, a phai kien quyet. S kien quyet o, Aldophe Delvaux a viet lai theo giong ieu thc dan ra ve khach quan cua y:

Trieu nh thay nguy c mat oc lap, a ban bac ngam cac phng ke e chan ng s lan chiem cua Phap. [...] Ton That Thuyet, [...] Nguyen Van Tng a loi keo Hoi ong C mat thoa thuan hai van e quyet nh nh sau: Ra mot mat lenh cho cac s phu nh ro ngay tan sat cung luc tat ca giao dan trong toan quoc [! sic! - Nct.]. Sau khi loai ke tiep tay cho quan xam lc se chuyen Trieu nh va Chnh phu en mot phao ai kien co, va en cac vung hiem tr bat kha xam pham. o chnh la Cam Lo hay ung hn la Tan S, va o la trung tam lien ket lc lng ai quoc, la ni Trieu nh se tam dng chan. Cac chuan b k quac e hnh thanh do nhng k niem qua kh [cua Nguyen Van Tng vi vung at Cam Lo - Nct.], tham hai thay, lai a c thc hien mot phan ln (A. Delvaux, NNBCH. [BAVH., 1916], bai viet va sd., tr. 54).

Va s the, theo Puginier viet ve thi gian hai thang sau ngay Kinh o Quat Khi (22 - 23. 5 At dau, 1885), nh a trch dan, chac chan ch v tnh huong lch s bat buoc, bi, giao dan thi bay gi, noi nh oan Trng t trc 1866:

      Gia-to noi ng ghe thay

      Giup em lng thc chang ngay nao khong

en 1885, s noi ng cua ta ao Thien Chua giao a qua cong khai. Sach Compendium... cua Ravie (Ravier), co oan viet: Bay gi mi noi cn bao tap rat d doi qua sc; t khi nc Nam co ao chang he bao gi bon ao phai cc khon cc nan bang bay gi; v trc kia, khi cam ao, ch co quan quan i bat b ma thoi, con dan ngoai th chang lo viec ay, lai cung thng ke b bat b. Con lan nay quan va dan ngoai eu ong tam hiep lc ma quyet tan diet ke co ao (trch theo GS. Tran Van Giau, He y thc phong kien va s that bai cua no trc nhiem vu lch s (tap I cua bo sach SPTTTVN. TTK. XIX. CMTT.), Nxb. TP. HCM., 1993, tr. 368, 370, trch dan Compendium historicoe Ecclesiasticoe cua H. Ravier; xem NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 242, 245 - 246).Va theo Delvaux:

... Cac quan chc muon khong dnh lu vao, s co s khong may ve sau [cach dien at cua Delvaux - Nct.], nen e viec o cho cac s phu am nhan, con rieng ho van trong bong toi.

Trong cac tnh, trong khi cac s phu chuan b chien au, th cac v quan ln lo tran an cac cong chc cua chnh quyen bao ho cung nh cac v linh muc va giao dan. Khi moi viec chuan b a xong xuoi roi, cac s phu tien chiem thanh tr cua cac tnh, va cac quan tnh th nhanh tay giao nap cac thanh tr ay, sau mot vai s phan khang qua loa; va nh the la nhng cuoc cat co [! sic! - Nct.] bat au (bai cua Delvaux, sd., tr. 78-79).

Cac quan tnh th nh the, con Nguyen Van Tng? Nguyen Van Tng cung khong the khac hn.

Tng De Courcy lay tin tc [ - Nct.] ong Tng, ong nay eu bao am rang s trat t an ninh ang hnh thanh khap ni. [Trong khi o - Nct.], cac tin tc bao ong don dap t mien nam [ta k - Nct.] c gi en. Tng Prudhomme muon biet tng tan tnh hnh that s cac viec, a c ong De Courcy chap thuan va cho phep en cac ni ay. Ong i cung ong De Champeaux tren chiec tau Le Lutin va en Quy Nhn ngay 18.8, va ong a muc kch toan la mau va la [!sic!] (Delvaux, bai a dan, sd, tr. 79).

Bi le, Trieu nh Hue vi lc lng vu trang khap cac tnh ang b suy yeu, nhng that s lc lng quan s cua Phap cung khong ln, nen van e do tnh the at ra la can phai tieu diet bon du dan  noi phan, nham co lap bon thc dan Phap, bien chung lam vao tnh canh nh cua gay cang, mac du chung chiem c kinh thanh Hue, tham ch chung at c ach bao ho len co cua dan toc ta! (Xem them: Delvaux, bai a dan, sd., tr. 47).

Va bi le, quan trong, quyet nh hn, ay la khong con cach nao khac, trong iem nh cua mau thuan oi khang, gia lc lng dan toc, yeu nc va bon thc dan Phap ma hau thuan cua chung la ta ao. o la bien phap chang ang ng trc s lan hiep cua thc dan va du dan, e cung co lai chnh quyen, gi vng chnh quyen nham lam hau phng cho phong trao Can vng, chong Phap bang vu trang va bang thng thuyet. Bien phap bao lc quyet liet ay, xuat phat t tnh the: khong con hau phng, hau thuan nc ngoai  nao khac! Chung toi nhan manh: khong con hau phng, hau thuan nc ngoai nao khac! Va lai, au ch bi menh lenh cua Nguyen Van Tng phoi hp vi Du Can vng cua Ham Nghi, Ton That Thuyet, trong cuoc noi day toan quoc nay, ma con do chnh sc manh quat khi hoan toan t giac cua nhan dan!

Chung toi a oi chieu vi ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien e ngu k (tap 36, tr. 244 - 246 ), va thay rang hien thc lch s mau la ay la co that. Tuy nhien, con phai thay ro, Delvaux, Puginier, H. Ravier, cac ten thc dan khac a thoi phong con so giao dan theo Phap xam lc en mc kinh hoang. S thoi phong qua ang ay (ngay ca trong ve That thu kinh o (6), cau 1337 - 1348) la nham bien minh cho viec Phap at ach o ho len co dan toc ta, nham kch ong giao dan mau quoc va Toa thanh La Ma (7).

Nh the, ch co the la: v tnh huong lch s, Nguyen Van Tng khong the bay to cho moi ngi biet, chnh ong cung Ton That Thuyet a chuan b, roi cung tien hanh cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi, lai phoi hp, lien lac thng xuyen vi phong trao Can vng cung theo cach va tien cong vu trang (ke anh), va khong biet g (ngi am), cho en ngay Nguyen Van Tng b ay i Con ao; va uy tn Nguyen Van Tng qua ln, chung ay ong tt tan Tahiti, gan nam chau My, sau nhieu thu oan li gian Nguyen Van Tng vi Ton That Thuyet (nh vu ot nha Nguyen Van Tng chang han)!

Viec Nguyen Van Tng b lu ay, lai theo Delvaux, Ngoai vu Paris tai Viet Nam, trong bai viet sach a dan, tr. 80: Mot s mau thuan sau xa chia re tng De Courcy va ong De Champeaux, nhat la oi vi van e ong phu chanh Tng. V tng th qua quyet la ong Tng luon luon lien lac vi ong Thuyet va [trc o - Nct.] lai nhung tay vao moi cuoc am mu lat o, va em xuong tau ay i Con ao ngay 6. 9 [1885 - Nct.] ... [...] lai chuyen en Tahiti [...]. Ong De Champeaux lai cho rang anh hng cua ong Tng la rat ln... [...].

Tat nhien, Delvaux van cai vao bai viet, ngay ca oan van tren nhng cau cha ng s m dan, s that thiet, chang han nh s o lng cua chung, thi iem Nguyen Van Tng chet.

Chung toi cung khong trch dan e nham neu len s mau thuan trong noi bo ke thu, cach oi x oi vi Nguyen Van Tng, theo quan iem thc dan rieng cua moi ten au so giac. ieu ang lu y, chung qua quyet la ong Tng luon luon lien lac vi ong Thuyet, anh hng cua ong Tng la rat ln. ieu nay khp vi ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien: hai mat du Ham Nghi gi ve, va chac han co nhng tap tau oi cua Nguyen Van Tng gi len chien khu Tan S. Viec an sat Quang Tr Ton That Nam c uy nhiem len Tan S hop vi Ton That Thuyet cung a c ghi nhan ro (NTL. CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 229).

Phng thc "khong biet g", khac vi lan thanh cong cuoi nam 1873 bc sang 1874, la lan nay (1885) khong co oan ket chien thang, nen Nguyen Van Tng khong c dp cung Ton That Thuyet bay to trc Tam Cung va nh than cung nhan dan. Tuy nhien, Quoc s quan trieu Nguyen biet ro ieu o. Chi tiet Du Can vng va mat du gi Nguyen Van Tng t Tan S (Cam Lo, Quang Tr) c viet mot ngay, phat va gi i mot luc (02. 6 At dau, 1885) a lam sang to. Va ban an chung tham cao th cua hai ten De Courcy va De Champeaux, vo hnh trung, lam sang to nh mot xac quyet cua "lan s" (tn s). Chung toi sau khi  nghien cu tron e t, e ngu, e luc k (tap 27 - tap 38) cua "ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien", lu y en "ban an" ve Nguyen Van Tng, a hn mot tram nam trc c Quoc s quan can than ghi chep lai, thay rang ban an cua thc dan oi vi Nguyen Van Tng, "ke thu khong oi tri chung" cua chung, vo hnh trung ma hien nhien, la ban an ep nhat, rc r nhat, cha tng co trong giai oan au chong Phap cua dan toc ta, mot giai oan lch s bi hung vi mot nhan vat bi hung nhat: Nguyen Van Tng!

Tat nhien, phng thc "khong biet g" cung a gay ra qua nhieu ngo nhan va de b xuyen tac. Song oi vi ong, ngi thc hien ke hoach khang chien cua ong, Ton That Thuyet nhan tat ca hao quang bi trang, mac du Ton That Thuyet cung b xuyen tac, boi nho, nhng kho long xuyen tac, boi nho hn!

Phng thc tong hp, "khong biet g" (ke , au tranh bang thng thuyet) va chien au vu trang (ngi i, au tranh bang quan s), Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet a hp lc tien hanh, trong lan Kinh o Quat Khi (05.7.1885), dau sao, cung a sang to.

(B chu: Ve viec Nguyen Van Tng cung Ton That Thuyet ban bac ke hoach, cung to chc cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi, 23.5. At dau (1885), xem Bu Ke, Chuyen trieu Nguyen, Nxb. Thuan Hoa, 1990, tr. 59, tr. 95-101, ac biet la tr. 97-98; xin xem them: Pham Van Sn, Viet Nam cach mang can s, Sai Gon, 1963, tr. 29-31; T ien nhan vat lch s Viet Nam, Nguyen Ba The, Nguyen Q. Thang, Nxb. VHTT., 1999, tr.706-707; Dau tuat nien gian phong hoa k s, trong ang c Tuan..., Lam Giang, Vo Ngoc Nha su tam, Sai Gon, 1970, tr. 478 - 479; Gosselin (tac gia LEmpire dAnnam, Paris, 1904) cung co y kien nh vay ben canh nhng chi tiet ba tac khac. S d chung toi cho rang ieu o ung v ngay ca NTL.CB, e luc k, tap 37, sd., tr.35 cung ket an (!) Nguyen Van Tng... "eu la be ang lam loan"; "thc la can nguyen tai va" (tr.33), "Nguyen Van Tng lien quy quyet em than quay ve thu toi vi quan o thong Phap, roi a b toi lu" (tr.132 - 141); trong VNSL., Tran Trong Kim cung dung ch "au thu", vi ngha la au hang (tat nhien la "tra hang", va tra hang nham tiep tuc au tranh, e phe chu "hoa", than Phap, ta ao khoi cp chnh quyen...). Tai sao Tran Trong Kim va chung lai bao Nguyen Van Tng "au thu", "tra hang", con nhng ngi khac ve hp tac vi chung th khong? Phai chang, ve sau, Phap biet ro Nguyen Van Tng cung Ton That Thuyet ban nh trc? Rat tiec, cuoi cung ong van b "tng ke tu ke" cua Caspar, De Courcy... Chac chan ong a lieu trc nguy c ay, nhng khong con cach nao khac, e cu van tnh hnh kinh o that thu, nen "anh lieu may rui vi tri" mot lan na!).

2.b.

Trong hai thang sau ngay Kinh o Quat Khi va b that thu, t 05.7 en 06.9.1885, cac nha s hoc thng quy het trach nhiem cho Nguyen Van Tng. Can thay ro, trong hai thang ngan ngui ay, Nguyen Van Tng het b quan thuc bi lnh Phap, ai uy Schmitz (A. Delvaux, bai viet tren, sd., tr. 77), lai b chi phoi bi De Courcy, Caspar, trc tiep la De Champeaux, pho cong s Hamelin. De Champeaux tr thanh thng th Bo Binh, C mat vien ai than cua Trieu nh Hue! Ve cai an t hnh cua ang Hu Pho (con trai cua pho ma Cat, ong hng vi Nguyen Luan), NTL.CB., tap 36, sd. a ghi ro noi dung tr. 240 - 241: ang Hu Pho chong viec phu Tha Thien sc cho huyen Quang ien tang cng quan so. Vo hnh trung ang Hu Pho a tiep tay cho Phap trong viec Phap yeu cau Trieu nh khong c tai vu trang (tap 36, sd. tr. 223). Ve pha Phap, dau vay Phap van xem ang Hu Pho noi loan! Va chnh ang Huy Xan, chu ruot cua ang Hu Pho, a la bat ong, em nop cho giac (theo mot so t lieu va ang pha)!  Vu Le Trung nh cung nh the, nhng dang cu the khac. Le Trung nh lai ton phu Tuy L vng (tap 36, sd., tr. 238), mot nha th chu "hoa", cau ket vi Phap thi Hiep Hoa, b ay vao Quang Ngai! Do viec ton phu nay, ngi ta tng Le Trung nh la ke c hoi! ung nh mot cau trong sac du cua T Du lau nay von do Nguyen Nhc Th Bch viet thay: "Ba thang b ng, bon bien am vang" (tap 36, sd., tr. 250; NLT., tap 3, sd., tr. 78)! ang Hu Pho, Le Trung nh yeu nc, chong Phap, nhng lai qu quang, thieu sang suot. S ch ao cua Ton That Thuyet, Nguyen Van Tng cung cha sau sat, cu the tng "bc i". Khi ngha, hng ng Du Can vng la ung, nhng chong Trieu nh luc Nguyen Van Tng con gi v the hay ton phu Tuy L vng la sai (mac du Mien Trinh t choi)! Bi le, Nguyen Van Tng van "nhat dang" vi Ton That Thuyet trong nhiem vu "ke ", "ngi i". Va lai, quyet an ang Hu Pho la do trieu ngh, Trieu nh lai co ca De Champeaux v tr trong than, chu chot, quyet nh! T Du, Mien nh chuan y! Con Le Trung nh lai do chnh cac tnh than va Nguyen Than hoi ban, chem trc, bao cao sau! (tap 36, sd., tr. 239). Do o khong the quy het moi viec Phap nhan danh Trieu nh e o tat ca cho Nguyen Van Tng! Vi chnh tr, chung ta phai thong cam, tham ch co nhng viec rat kho tam, cung phai v chap nhan e qua mat giac Phap va phe chu "hoa", chang han nh cung Trng Quang an viet th cho Ho [Van] Hien a Ham Nghi - linh hon cua cuoc khang chien - ve lai Hue trong khi Phap van tiep tuc lan hiep (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 235).

Nhng cung can thay ro, sac du ve viec truy bat Ton That Thuyet, Tran Xuan Soan, treo giai cho ai bat c, chem c, chnh ong Khanh ve sau cung xac nhan la do T Du ban hanh (NTL. CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 235 - 236; tap 37, sd., tr. 175).

Hn na, s hoc phai phan tach ro ''h chieu'' va ''thc chieu''! Nhng g Nguyen Van Tng lam c cho viec tai cung co vng quyen nha Nguyen t Trieu nh en huyen xa, cho phong trao Can vng la nhng ch ao va thanh van, va khau lenh, va cong khai, va ban cong khai, trong nhng luc thoat khoi oi mat cu vo cua bon De Champeaux, bon chu "hoa" (thc chat la au hang)... (8).

2.c.

ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien, t tap 36 tr ve trc, du trong xieng xch y he bao hoang, van the hien c tinh than chong Phap, lap trng yeu nc. tap 36, sd., tr. 247,  a ghi ro: "o thong Phap la Co-ra-xy [De Courcy - Nct.] bat thai pho, Can Chanh ien ai hoc s, lanh Lai bo thng th, kiem sung C mat vien ai than, K V quan cong, la Nguyen Van Tng xuong tau thuy chay i Gia nh. C theo li cao th cua kham s Tham-bo [De Champeaux - Nct.] noi: Van Tng tng a chong c nc ay [nc Phap - Nct.] thc a nhieu nam. T khi cung vi Ton That Thuyet sung lam phu chanh, chn [: von - Nct.] lai ong suat quan quan noi day cong kch quan binh nc ay [nc Phap - Nct.]; va Van Tng do o thong ay xin [chnh phu Phap - Nct.] cho hai thang [nham e - Nct.] lo lieu viec nc cung Bac K cung c lang yen vo s; [k thc - Nct.] en ngay 27 thang ay het han, ma cac tnh ta k ve pha nam (8) (10),  co nhieu ni noi quan chem giet dan giao. en ay o thong ay nh an, ng [:nen; phai] ket toi lu. Hom ay ch em Van Tng en ca bien Thuan An...".

o la ban ket an cua Thc dan Phap! [xem lai std., tr. 94 - 98, tc la tr. 552-558 cua MHBS.].

Va ay la quoc th cua ten vua tay sai, bu nhn ong Khanh, co chi tiet vu va, o toi khong ung s that, co chi tiet khang nh ung (oi chieu vi ngon ng tng minh, cuoi tap 35 va tron tap 36, sd.). Li le ay - giong li cua y:      

''Quyen than la Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet [...]. Ngay 23 thang 5 nam nay, kinh thanh that thu, xe tien e di i, 2 ngi ay thc la can nguyen cua tai va [...]" (NTL.CB., k e luc - k b bao ho, tap 37, sd., tr. 33) (8).

nh than, noi theo cach noi cua Tran Trong Kim, "nhieu ngi a biet theo chnh sach bao ho cho nen moi viec trong Trieu eu c yen on" ( VNSL., b.1964, tr.554 va 555). nh than ay cung Ton nhan phu ket an (!):

"Ton nhan phu va nh than dang s tau bay toi trang cua Nguyen Van Tng va Ton That Thuyet, xin tc het quan tc va tch thu gia san; tham tri Trng Van e a qua co, va chng ve Tran Xuan Soan, eu la be ang lam loan, cung tc ca quan chc. Trong bon ay, th Ton That Thuyet, Tran Xuan Soan, xin do quan a phng xet bat bang c va chem ngay, e to ro hien phap trong nc. Vua nghe theo" (tap 37, sd., tr. 35) (8) [xem them b chu bo sung cuoi bai (9)].

Li du va cao th cua ong Khanh va kham s Phap cung cac kham sai cua Trieu nh, trong chien dch triet ha uy tn nhom chu chien (in ra, niem yet khap ni):

"...Tom lai, la do t Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet long quyen [...]. Hai quyen than ay lan nay on lap, nhieu viec man muoi, trc th li ve de khong che, sau ch mu cho ban than; bong dng gay han, nghieng o ton xa, bat hiep vua chay i; Nguyen Van Tng lien quy quyet em than quay ve thu toi vi quan o thong ai Phap, roi a b toi lu, Le Thuyet [b oi ho - Nct.] th song mot cach tam b trong rng. May ma nc ai Phap co long nhan th, giup ta chan hng c nc a mat, noi lai c the a t, nc nha o mi con" (tap 37, sd., tr.133) (8).

ung la giong li hen ha, anh gia ngc tat ca !

"Duy tram tin la cac s phu, tnh thc la nhan nham, ch khong phai co long lam loan; Trieu nh a em au moi hoa loan, la t Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet gay ra, noi ro rang vi quan ai Phap, a tin khong ng, e cho Trieu nh ta phai x tr ngay, cho lng giao eu c yen on" (NTL.CB., tap 37, sd., tr. 134) (8).

Cung nh cach thoi phong, bp bm, ham ho cua cac ten thc dan, gian iep oi lot ton giao, khai niem, con so "dan giao" cua ong Khanh, Hector va cac kham sai cung the. Chung muon bien cuoc khang chien chong Phap xam lc, bao ve van hoa dan toc thanh cuoc chien tranh ton giao, con cuoc xam lc cua thc dan Phap thanh "thanh chien", "thap t chinh" (bay gi nhan dan, s phu goi thap gia la thap ac), nham kch ong giao dan "mau quoc", kch ong ca Toa thanh La Ma (Rome)!

Thc ra, Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet cung phoi hp menh lenh, trong tnh huong buoc long phai e ra ke sach "chia tach trieu chnh" (anh va am), ch nham vao thc dan Phap, bon lnh le dng (legionaire etrangere), bon co ao lam gian iep cho Phap, bon Viet gian, trong o tat nhien co mot bo phan khong t la "du dan" ch thc.

S kien o, ngay ca trc khi Nguyen Van Tng b lu ay, T Du a hieu ra, va bang ngon ng tng minh, a ch ro nguyen nhan ong thi anh gia ung, t ra la hai iem sau ay:

T ieu c tai nh [Patenotre - Nct.] a c phan minh, khien nc Phap trc t bai hoa gay bien, th pham ai at vua, cung eu thu ghet [giac Phap - Nct.], ai bao la khong nen. Khong g bang CUOC NGHA C em 22 thang 5 nam nay... (NTL. CB., tap 36, sd., cuoi tr. 244), gom ca hien thc mau la sau o...

Tuy the, cao th niem yet cua trieu ong Khanh va Hector cung cac kham sai, co nhien van la luan ieu vi cach anh gia ngc theo tieu ch goi giac bang ngai, goi ngi yeu nc bang nghch, NGHA C QUAT KHI la lam loan:

"Nay Le Thuyet, tron tranh rng gap ghenh, mot than tuy nho, ma coi at tri nh con hep; Nguyen Van Tng th a b i ay; tc la tri tr ke tat ac [...]. Khong ng bon ngi [tc la cac s phu, nhan dan - Nct.] theo y lam lieu, [...] khang c menh lenh Trieu nh, cam tam het long trung vi ke thu [tc la Ham Nghi, Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, nhng theo mach van, th ch nham en hai phu chnh - Nct.], t Hai Van tr vao nam, khong cho nao la khong loan [khi ngha - Nct.], rat ang quai la; sao khong xem chau Hoan, chau Dien, Quang Bnh, Quang Tr, mn tieng la xng ngha, can vng, eu em than bon cho ong co, mi nha th chn nha het sach; con nhng ke lot li, th b ma oc, kh nui..." (NTL.CB., tap 37, sd., tr. 138).

ung nh nhan nh cua De Champeaux, uy tn, tam anh hng cua Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet va nhom chu chien la rat ln. Thao nao chung tm cach li gian, boi nho en the! oi vi chung ta, hai ban ket an chung tham cua De Courcy, De Champeaux, cua ong Khanh, Trieu nh tay sai, bu nhn, chnh la li tong ket tron ven nhng cuoc i au tranh kien cng ma linh hoat, cua Nguyen Van Tng va cua nhom chu chien trong s nghiep chung cua bao s phu, cua nhan dan chong thc dan Phap xam lc, gom ca hai thang va sau o, t sau ngay Kinh o Quat Khi (22 - 23. 5 At dau, 1885).

2.d.

Cung ro rang Nguyen Van Tng, suot ca quang i au tranh vi thc dan Phap, t au en luc trut hi th cuoi cung Papetti, thu phu x ao Tahiti, ni chon lu ay cac nha chnh tr chong Phap, ong luon soi suc mot moi cam thu sau sac oi vi bon thc dan cp nc mnh. Chnh ke ng pha oi phng, H. Le Marchant de Trigon, thanh tra chnh tr va hanh chnh An Nam, ngi Phap, a viet:

"Than oi, ngay ngay hom sau [tc la ngay ke tiep ngay 29.8.1875 - chung toi can c vao bai viet e chua ro - Nct.], nhng thu oan pha roi co he thong cua Nguyen Van Tng (11) keo dai cho en ngay chiem cang Thuan An va con ve sau nay, cho en khi ay ke thu khong oi tri chung cua chung ta, va trong thi gian o, [Nguyen Van Tng-Nct.] chang chu hieu biet g cung chang chu quen g".

Ke thu a viet nh the ve Nguyen Van Tng (K V ba), goi qua trnh au tranh chong Phap tren mat tran chnh tr, ngoai giao cua ong mot cach khiem nha nh vay: "nhng thu oan pha roi co he thong"! Thc ra, o la mot qua trnh au tranh cam go ay mu tr, lien tuc, nhat quan, kien nh, ben b suot may chuc nam tri lam quan. Va qua that, ong la "ke thu khong oi tri chung" cua thc dan Phap cho en luc b ay, b chet. Lam sao chung mua chuoc c ong , khien ong bui tai quen i moi cam thu giac Phap canh canh trong long va noi au au tm cach cu nc, cu dan, quet sach bon chung, ngay trong thi gian b ay, ngay trong phut cuoi cung cua i mnh, ngay 30.7.1886!

o chnh la c s lch s cua ieu Nguyen Van Tng muon gi lai nghn sau trong bon ch: "nhat dang" va "u trung":

      "ng nui van trung lo kieu biec

      Long toi mot dang gi san son"

                 

      "Niem trung sau kn, sau ai to?

      To quoc, vua, dan, au nang hn?"

                              (Chia tach trieu chnh...)

Bon ch "nhat dang", "u trung" a c bao chng bang s that lch s!

 

(3)

 

Tat nhien, "XA TAC, QUAN, DAN, THUC TRONG KHINH?", cau ay a ra mot s chon la vi hanh ong chnh tr cu the trong tnh huong lch s cu the, ai la "ke ", ai la "ngi i".

ay xin m rong them mot kha canh a trnh bay chu iem (2) ben tren.

3.a.

Chnh trong mat du Ham Nghi (va Ton That Thuyet) gi ve t Tan S a dung hai t ay vi xac quyet: "Nay ai than Ton That Thuyet cung ta quanh quan, con ngi [Nguyen Van Tng - ngi chu thch chua them] la phu chnh ai than th lai ma thng am; ke ngi i eu lay long yeu nc lo dan lam can ban; tri at cung thc chng giam..." (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 225-226). Mat du ay cung vi Du Can vng c gi ve va phat i trong mot ngay (02.6 At dau: [13.7.1885]). Nguyen Van Tng a chon la v tr giap mat vi ke thu mot cach trc dien, mot v tr ma Ton That Thuyet khong co kha nang am ng, nham e au tranh tiep tuc vi noi dung oi tam thi hoa, ngha la khong chap nhan lau dai khoan 7 "hoa" c Patenotre - Pham Than Duat (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 236 - 237 va Hanh Thuc ca, sd., tr. 48). "Ke ", cung la nhiem vu ba T Du giao pho (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 221 va tr. 230; HTC., s., tr. 39 - 40). Nguyen Nhc th Bch ke bang th:

      "Thay ngi trc on len ng

      Gi rang: "Co Nguyen Van Tng chc ay"

      Phan rang: "S a dng nay

      Ngi tua [:lo; nen] lai, ngo ray x phan"

      Vang li Tng mi lui chan

      Gia ra khoi ca, dan lan doi theo"

Va Dau Tuat nien gian phong hoa k s:

      Thuyet - Tng sanh s s sanh

      em Ham Nghi tron bon hanh Khiem Lang

      Cung nhau ban luan ra rang

      Thuyet i ho gia, Tng bang ve au

      Kheo lam chc nhiem [nhn ?] mu sau

      Phap quan mac mp tng au thiet tnh

                                          (sd., tr. 516 - 517)

Trong mot mat du khac, Ham Nghi (va Ton That Thuyet) a viet:

''Nay a co phu chnh huan than Nguyen khanh [tc Nguyen Van Tng - Nct.] lai giang noi, che ch nhieu viec, hi c yen on; huan than tam s nh the, cang ang nh the, thc la au kho qua chng. Nhan vat nc ta, nhng ngi trung ngha t xa, tng khong hn c. Tram cung du cho ai than ay het long ban tnh cong viec, tau ch quyet nh'' (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 227). o la mat du gi cho hoang toc, Ham Nghi (va Ton That Thuyet) a viet ve Nguyen Van Tng nh vay. Va, ung ra, moi sach lc eu do Nguyen Van Tng gop phan vach ra, t nam 1866 (NTL.CB., tap 31, sd., tr. 86 - 89, tr. 103...), Ham Nghi (va Ton That Thuyet) ch nhac lai.

Nhan ay, xin hng cai nhn ve nhng nam thang trc o [hoan canh - tam the sang tac chnh la muc (2) va 3.a.].

3.b.

M rong van e: BI KCH IEM NH MAU THUAN. au phai ch hai thang sau em Kinh o Quat Khi (22 - 23.5. At dau: 04 - 05.7.1885), van e chon la hanh ong chnh tr tao bao, sang suot, v so phan nhan dan va van nc, t lau a c tnh huong lch s at ra mot cach het sc gay gat, gay gat nhat la t luc T c bang ha (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 198, 207, 231), tc la hn hai mi nam trc o (t 1858), ac biet la t thang 7.1883 (thang 6, Quy mui).

Can phai thay ro t tng chu chien Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet va bao s phu khac trong quan he bien chng vi tng chuyen bien thi cuoc, tng quyet sach cua T c, tng thu oan cua Phap, s quay roi cua bon ph Tau. Co nhng luc phai nhan nai, giau long, tham lang nung nau y ch khang chien!

Nhng thi iem cang thang nhat, sau vu Henry Riviere (1882), Phap anh chiem Bac K, chuan b am mu uy hiep kinh o Hue, T c lai mat, lai e di chieu truyen ngoi cho Duc c! Truyen ngoi cho Duc c, dau di chieu vi net ch thng va ch son o chau phe cua T c a ghi ro: mat hi co tat, giau kn [th nhn - Nct.] khong ro rang, s sau khong sang; tnh lai hieu dam, cung rat la khong tot; cha chac ng noi viec ln. Nhng nc can co vua nhieu tuoi; ng luc kho khan nay, khong dung han th dung ai? (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 199)! cac trang khac cua NTL.CB., lai ghi ro la mat co tat, co le nham khong kn, co kha nang mu (xem them NNDVPVTH., sd., tr. 302; NTL.CB., tap 32, sd., tr. 133).

Di chieu phan anh u t cua T c ve v vua ke nhiem, ve tien o at nc. T c a sap xep ba v phu chanh ai than, cho phep "nghiem sac mat ng Trieu nh, [vi s] gi mnh ng an" e giup vua, oc suat quan thuoc (NTL.CB., tap 35, tr. 200).

ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien, ghi rat ro ve Duc c:

Duc c len ngoi, mac du cha tuyen oc di chieu lai tao phe canh rieng (ra vao cung ien, bon tay chan ay lai c cap che bai (the bai) e eo); lai be tre ca viec phe duyet cac t tau khan cap cua cac quan th; con vi pham quy che le tang (mac ao sac luc), tnh ngay chuyen trang sc ngay khi T c mi c kham liem! (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 206). ieu ay T c t trc a can dan, neu the, phai t hnh; co van ban a cat vao hom sat (NTL.CB., sd., tap 32, tr. 102; tap 33, tr. 130 va 350).

Theo Delvaux, Nhng ngi ban co o Hue (BAVH., so 1, 1941): trong nhom ngi c tuy tien ra vao cung cam ay, co ca linh muc Th (trc la tham ta thng chanh Hai Dng), nhieu lan sang Phap, Tay Ban Nha. Y co kha nang la noi gian cua Phap. Duc c lai dung y lam th k rieng!

Duc c con muon cat di chieu, v "ngh trong t di chieu ran bao co nhng cau khong tot, khong the truyen ba cho moi ngi nghe; trieu cac phu chnh ai than, can bt mot oan ay i, khong tuyen luc ra. Tran Tien Thanh bao the cung on, hai ngi [Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet - Nct.] eu tha rang: Xin nha vua quyet nh" (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 207).

Trc o, "Van Tng bao kn Thuyet rang: "Tien e a bao vua noi ngoi cha chac ng noi viec ln, lai giao cho ngoi ln. Nay bat au, a c ong nh the, huong chi la sau nay ? o la viec lo rieng cho chung ta". Thuyet von tnh cng trc lai cay quyen cam quan lien mat ap rang: "C nh li chieu th mu tnh la v xa tac, bat ac d ma lam viec nho nh Y Doan, Hoac Quang [phe lap - Nct.], cung la ch cua tien e"; nhan the cung y mu bo [phe Duc c-Nct.] i" (NTL. CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 206).

Ton That Thuyet a qua sau sac, hieu ro an y cua T c: phe Duc c, la "ch cua tien e", "v xa tac". Trong lch s, co bao ten vua hoang dam en noi tan nat c o, nc mat, dan no le ngoai bang; ai cung co the biet mot so ien hnh dam o nh the. Hn na, s "s khong ng noi viec ln" v thoi "hieu dam", v "s sau khong sang" la mot oan chac, mac du cha khang quyet, cua chnh T c! Do o, phe Duc c la mot chuyen tat yeu, neu tai v cung khong co uy tn v thoi hieu dam la rat kho cha va kho giau, au phai cat hay khong cat di chieu (toi ta che th), va v nguy c a thay trc: Tng Dc... Lam sao "nghiem sac mat" vi vua tren ngai vang! Phai chang T c a "au hang"? Phai chang T c muon thanh minh cho mnh vu phe Hong Bao (mot mac cam sau xa va ray rt khon nguoi trong T c)?

"Xa tac, quan, dan, thuc trong khinh?" con la t tng, rat co ien va rat truyen thong, a soi sang cho Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet cung nhom chu chien Trieu nh Hue i en quyet nh truat phe Duc c (giam long hn mot nam, en thi Ham Nghi len ngoi mi quyet nh ra lenh thi hanh an), (xem NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 172-173 va Hanh Thuc ca, sd., tr. 33-34). Khong nhng Duc c a b Phap mua chuoc, ban than h hong, ma Hiep Hoa cung la ke cam tam au hang, am mu cung Tran Tien Thanh, cau ket vi De Champeaux va theo lenh y! Hiep Hoa a dung ke li gian, hong ay Ton That Thuyet va Nguyen Van Tng i en cho hai v phu chanh nay giet nhau! Nhng, vi s oan ket mot long, ho a pha v am mu cua Hiep Hoa, ma ang sau Hiep Hoa la Tran Tien Thanh, Tuy L vng, De Champeaux... a the, nhng ke ay lai nh mu sat Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet! (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 255-260; ien tn bao cao cua phu suy Phap gi Bo Hai ngoai Phap, xem Tran Th Thanh Thanh, "Nhn lai viec phe lap Hue nam Quy Mui (1883)", KYHNKH. HSP. TP. HCM., 20.6.1996, sd., tr. 34 [trch nguyen van, xem ghi chu bo sung cuoi bai]. Tran Tien Thanh la ke ma Hong Tap va s phu Van than ket an t hnh, ke "c giao nhiem vu thng lng vi nc Phap va b lien luy do s cham lo cho quyen li nc Phap" (ng Trnh, Nhng ngi ban co o Hue [BAVH.1919], sd., tap VI B, tr. 406). Tuy L vng Mien Trinh cung mot giuoc vi Hiep Hoa, Tran Tien Thanh! Va cai chet Kien Phuc, chnh la do Hong Hu hoac Duc c. Trc het, chnh Kien Phuc chet v tham vong tr lai ngoi vua cua Duc c. Phap a mm y cho Vu th (hoang hau cua T c, me nuoi cua Duc c, e Vu th truyen lai noi dung mm y ay cho Duc c), tai Khiem Lang! (?). Du vay, NTL.CB. chep ve viec nay kha m ho: "Cong [kham? - Nct.] s Phap en thang ngoai ca Khiem cung chi xem. Ngi ong ay va quan suat khong bao ban ngan can c"... (NTL.CB, tap 35, sd., tr. 243; tap 36, tr. 69; VNSL., sd., b. 1999, tr. 594). Hn na, Phap chi mot luc hai con bai chu: khong ch Duc c, ma ca Hong Hu! Chung nh a len ngoi mot ong vua loan luan co qua tang, than Phap, tiet lo quan quoc trong s, thc hien am mu cua thc dan (NTL.CB., tap 37, sd., tr. 61-62 va NLT., tap 3, sd., tr. 163, tr. 203...). Trc trieu than, Ton That Thuyet a noi ro am mu cua thc dan Phap: ... s cu Phap la Le-na [Rheinart - Nct.] uy cho k luc Hinh ti dinh bon toi noi: Neu ton Gia Hng vng [Hong Hu - Nct.] len lam vua th y thuan nghe, bang khong the th y gay chuyen... [...]... viec Hong Hu [khong c len ngoi vua - Nct.] co ngi khong bang long (am ch vao Le-na), a tin giem pha [Trieu nh - Nct.] a nhieu... (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 176 - 177; Hanh Thuc ca, sd., tr. 30 - 34). Xin trch lai nguyen van Hanh Thuc ca cua Nguyen Nhc th Bch, tr. 33 (NLT., tap 3, sd., tr. 77 - 78: tieu s NNTB.):

      "a yen viec noi Tay kia

      Bay gi may ke hiem nghi lo tr..."

Tat nhien Nguyen Nhc th Bch benh vc Duc c, phe phan Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet (12), tham ch t nhieu ai ngai benh vc ca Hong Hu, mac du khong khang an hay cai chnh g ve vu loan luan gia Hong Hu va cong chua ong Xuan (sau b oi la Phuc Le, vi ngha la phai tuan theo le giao)! Chung toi ch trch dan e chng minh rang: Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, Ton nhan phu, nh than cuoi cung phai ra lenh thi hanh an, bi "ng" rang, chnh Duc c va Hong Hu, mot trong hai, a ngam giet Kien Phuc hong chiem ngoi vua theo ung y o cua thc dan Phap. Cai "ng", noi theo cach noi Nguyen Nhc th Bch, lai ung s that!

Bi kch cung nh am mau va thuoc oc nay la iem nh cua mau thuan oi khang gia lc lng thc dan Phap, ta ao, bon hoang than than Phap, vi lc lng yeu nc, chu chien cua Ham Nghi, Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, Trng Van e, Ong ch Khiem, Pham Than Duat, Tran Xuan Soan, Ton That Phan...

ng tren lap trng dan chu va yeu nc, di anh sang khoa hoc lch s, can nhn lai bi kch ay.

Bi kch am mau cung nh nha Nguyen (noi u hn, con am thuoc oc, s boi nho, vu khong vi tham vong, toi  loi co that cua Duc c, Hiep Hoa, Tran Tien Thanh, Hong Hu... cung s ban nc, au hang cua nhng ke o; va oan khuat cua nhng con ngi yeu nc, co nhan cach cao ep, trung thanh vi trieu Nguyen mot cach sang suot nh Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, Pham Than Duat...) thc chat do thc dan Phap, do bon oi lot Thien Chua giao gay ra; cu the nh a noi, la chung mua chuoc, nam lay Duc c, Hiep Hoa, Hong Hu, Tran Tien Thanh... nham ay dan toc ta vao vc tham mat nc, bien trieu Nguyen thanh lu roi, bu nhn, tay sai (ong Khanh, Khai nh, Bao ai).

o con la bi kch thuoc ve ban chat che o quan chu phong kien, trong viec truyen ngoi, tranh gianh ngai vang trong e he, bat chap so phan nhan dan va van nc!

Va lai, o con la bi kch thi chien: quyet an trong tnh trang khan cap (ngay thi dan chu cung co quyen ban bo luat ve tnh trang khan cap, khong chap nhan oi lap chnh kien).

"To quoc, vua, dan, au nang hn?". Long trung cua Nguyen Van Tng va nhom chu chien Trieu nh Hue - kien quyet chong giac va bon phan quoc - a lam sang choi ch trung chan chnh, rat co ien va rat truyen thong.

3.c.

Nguyen Van Tng va nhom chu chien Trieu  nh Hue a chon la ung trong bi kch nh  iem smau thuan. Ho cung a tra li ung cau hoi: "Xa tac, quan, dan, thuc trong khinh?", trong s phan cong cho em Kinh o Quat Khi va trong viec giao nhiem vu sau em lch s 22 - 23.5 At dau (ch t 05.7.1885 en 06.9.1885! Tiec thay!).

Nguyen Van Tng dung cam, mu tr, va nhan mot ket qua bi at, am tnh hi sinh cao ca hn Ton That Thuyet nhieu lan. Nguyen Van Tng con la mot Nguyen Trai, tuy bi kch moi ngi mot khac - khong co quan he yeu ng g vi Hoc Phi (c phong hoang thai phi nh me ruot cua Hiep Hoa, v Hiep Hoa a tao ra tien le).

(B chu: Chnh ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien, e t va e ngu k, bien soan chu yeu di thi Thanh Thai, lai khac in cung thi Thanh Thai, nam th 6 (1894) en nam th 14 (1902) - Thanh Thai la con trai cua Duc c! - a lam sang to nhan cach ao c cua Nguyen Van Tng trong bi kch b vu khong nay, cung nh tat thay nhng vu viec khac, mot cach chi tiet trong han che cua y he bao hoang! [NTL.CB., tap 27-36, sd.; li du va t tau ve viec khac in, tr. 12 va tr. 17 (tap 27), tr. 5 va tr. 13 (tap 36)]. Con e luc k gom hai tap 37, 38 viet ve trieu ong Khanh, khac in vao nam 1909, co li du cua Duy Tan (con qua be) ngi ca ca ong Khanh bu nhn, tay sai hen ha, chong ngi yeu nc chan chnh va phong trao Can vng ay [NTL.CB., tap 37, tr. 5-6], han la ANH GIA NGC e lu s that. Chnh Duy Tan lai theo con ng cua Ham Nghi, vi s ban bac, thc hien ke hoach cung Thai Phien, Tran Cao Van, cung la theo ke hoach 1885 cua Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet trc o. Hai v vua yeu nc nay a b Phap lu ay nh Nguyen Van Tng. [Chung toi khong muon noi en giai oan ve sau cua vua Duy Tan!]).

T lieu c viet bi thc dan, tay sai, bi ngi b bo buoc bang xieng xch bao hoang, ke ca nhng ngi yeu nc thien can, v thien can ma sa vao am mu li gian (am mu li gian ngay ca sau ngay 23. 5 At dau, 1885) cua Phap, cua cac ten thc dan oi lot giam muc, linh muc, can c oc mot cach tnh tao vi s phan tch, ai loc khoa hoc. Ch trong viec phe lap t 1883 en 1884, cung  a lam van e!

Tuy nhien, cuoi cung, s that lch s a c sang to, ke ca ch trung trong quan he ong ch.

S that lch s a sang to, t ra la t di trieu vua Thanh Thai, co ieu, co lam ngi khong co ieu kien nhn thang vao s that lch s, vao chan dung cao ep, anh hung ch thc cua Nguyen Van Tng va nhom chu chien mac du ch la nhng chan dung cha toa sang het o sang, bi bo s, dau la tn s, van b nhuom mau sac bao hoang (tap 27 - tap 36), roi mau sac phan quoc, vi cach anh gia ngc (tap 37 - tap 38)! K e t va k  e ngu phai cat vao kho s va phat hanh han che, trong khi o, k e luc lai b truyen ba khap ca nc, dung e giang day trong nha trng thc dan na phong kien! 

Ngi nong can hoac cam tam cau "hoa", thc chat la ban nc cau vinh, ch t la cau an, c mai la mnh doi ngi, cho rang Nguyen Van Tng "tham lam", "tan nhan", "quy quyet", Ton That Thuyet "t hoc", "hen nhat", "hieu sat" va cung "tham lam", "quy quyet", Pham Than Duat "ao ngu" ("bo cuoc")... vo tnh hoac chu y ri vao luan ieu tuyen truyen va m dan, va oc ac: "ap tan tanh" uy tn cua nhng trung than sang suot, het long v nc, v dan va v trieu Nguyen (13); va trc mat thu bay gi la ap tan tanh quoc ke chia tach trieu chnh nhng van nhat dang cua Nguyen Van Tng va Ton That Thuyet, nham dap tat phong trao Can vng.

ay, trong khuon kho cua bai viet trnh bay theo tng chu iem, chung toi ch a ra cac c lieu s hoc va t o, mot cach ngan gon en mc toi a, lam sang to s that lch s - o chnh la hoan canh sang tac, tam the sang tac bai "Giai trieu..." ("Chia tach trieu chnh...") va hai cau bo sung (chu thch), hoac e sa cha hai cau ket cua bai that ngon bat cu ay (14):

      ... Sn knh van trung thng thuy lien

      Than tam nhat dang luyen an nh

      Th phi nhien pho thien thu hau

      Xa tac quan vng thuc trong khinh?

 

      U trung thuy bach thien thu hau?

      Xa tac quan dan thuc trong khinh? (15)

 

(4)

 

KET LUAN T CHU IEM (2) VA (3):

 

Nh vay, t nhieu nguon t lieu cua thc dan, tay sai, gian iep oi lot Thien Chua giao, t lieu quan trong va can ban nhat la cua Quoc s quan trieu Nguyen (quan iem chep s t cho yeu nc, chong Phap, chong ta ao, co nhien van bao hoang, t nhieu ngu trung [hai k e t, e ngu] i en chap nhan tieu ch anh gia ngc,  goi giac xam lc bang ngai, goi ngha s la giac; chong ngi yeu nc chan chnh [k e luc]) en ca t lieu suy dien, xuyen tac ve sau (gom ca thien can, ngo nhan), chung ta eu co the i en mot ket luan nhat tr ve tron cuoc i hoat ong cua Nguyen Van Tng. Nguyen Van Tng, mot nhan cach choi sang, mot nha hoach nh chien lc, chien thuat, mot nha chnh tr, ngoai giao tai gioi, giau mu tr, mot chien s v tr lanh ao cao, ch thc co pham chat anh hung, biet chien au va biet hi sinh mot cach dung cam.

Hai cau oi knh vieng linh cu Nguyen Van Tng a the hien cam ngh cua ngi ng thi luc bay gi ve ke sach cua mot lanh tu a nam gi van menh at nc va a b giac Phap xam lc lu ay :

      Quoc ke th phi lan s nh

      Thien phng sinh t nhan th ieu !

                              (Vu T Van ? ao Tan ?)

      Ke sach [cho]at nc, ung [hay] sai,

           [se do] tn s [s co iem con lan]

           nh luan

      [] phng tri, song [hoac] chet, th xa

           [buoc vao chan nhan c ] vat v

           [trong gio]

      Ke nc ung sai trang s quyet

      Phng tri song chet nhan th chao!

                              (Nguyen Manh Hao dch).

Tat nhien lch s a ghi nhan. Va Nguyen Van Tng khong the chu trach nhiem sau khi ong a b lu ay biet x, t ngay 06.9.1885, trc van menh cua To quoc.

Moi viec gay ra nhieu loan "t lieu" e nham tao ra s ho nghi ve ong (va ve Ton That Thuyet (16)) eu xuc pham en le cong bang, long yeu chuong  tnh khoa hoc nghiem minh cua s hoc, quyet tam bao ve s that lch s va cong l. Va lai, c e ton tai tnh trang ay la vo hnh trung hay co y ri vao luan ieu cua giac Phap, bon "ta ao", bon chu "hoa" lan nhng ke yeu nc nhiet thanh tuy thien can hoac b mac mu tuyen truyen boi nho cua chung!

Mat khac, Nguyen Van Tng con la mot nha th. Ong khong nhng co tai ngon ng trong cac van ban ngoai giao, chnh tr, trong au tranh cac cuoc hoi ngh nh vua T c a gian tiep khen ngi khi so sanh vi Nguyen T Gian (NTL.CB., tap 33, sd., tr. 126-127), Nguyen Van Tng con la mot nghe s cua nghe thuat ngon t tinh dieu (li chau phe Thi tap).

Chien au mat tran vi gm ao sung an, au tranh trong thng thuyet ngoai giao va tren trng chnh tr, cung vi viec lam th, tat ca ch la mot, eu khi t trai tim yeu nc va long cam thu giac, bon tay sai.

 

                                                           TRAN XUAN AN

 

Bai viet di dang chu thch nay, chung toi a tach lam hai bai khao luan, sau khi bo sung luan c t lieu. Xin xem tap sach: Tran Xuan An, Nguyen Van Tng, nhng ngi trung ngha t xa, tng khong hn c.

 

    (1) Tap tau Nguyen Van Tng gi Tam Cung Quang Tr a b Phap duyet (viet nien hieu Ham Nghi nhng ong an quan phong cua Phap). Do o noi dung ch co tnh chat oi pho ca vi Phap.

    (2) Xem them chu thch (16), ban dch ngha bai 56.

    (3) ong ch: mot danh t ch nhng ngi cung ch hng na sau the k XIX: trung quan, ai quoc, chu chien, chong Phap (bnh Tay sat ta), chong bon giac C quay roi va mu toan banh trng cua nha Thanh Trung Hoa, cha phai la khai niem "ong ch" theo l tng cong san chu ngha hien ai.

    (4) Xin xem oan trch bai viet cua GS. oan Quang Hng.

    (5) Xem Y. Tsuboi, NNDVPVTH., sd., tr. 64 - 83.

    (6) Xin xem them b chu cua chu thch (6), ban dch ngha bai th 27.

    (7) iem nay, chung toi (ngi bien soan, chu thch) (17) thay can noi ro them: cac ten thc dan oi lot linh muc, giam muc, mot mat, thoi phong con so, mat khac, quy tat ca bon Viet gian theo Phap vao nhan hieu "giao dan", ong thi ton cac ten xam lc Phap la "s gia cua Thien Chua"! Do o, "bnh Tay sat ta", khau hieu ay co ngha la anh dep giac Phap xam lc va tieu diet bon "giao dan" vi ngha tren va vi ngha choi bo truyen thong dan toc, e bao ve oc lap dan toc va ban sac van hoa dan toc Viet Nam cua chung ta.

    (8) Chung toi xin chot lai va nhan manh diem nay:

                Co ieu, s hoc van phai phan tach ro "h chieu" va "thc chieu":

a.        can c vao ba mi nam lam quan, mot niem trung quan ai quoc va kien nh lap trng chong Phap;

b.       can c vao hai thang sau ngay 23.5 At dau, 1885 vi tinh than au tranh khang khai, khong chu khuat phuc cua Nguyen Van Tng [gom ca y nh lap ong Khanh bi khong con ai khac trong dien co the, NTL.CB., tap 37, sd., tr. 23] ;

c.        can c vao ban ket an chung tham cua De Courcy, De Champeaux va Trieu nh ong Khanh [NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 247 va tap 37, sd., tr. 33, 35, 132 - 141];

d.       can c vao ca t lieu cua Puginier, Le Manchant de Trigon, A. Delvaux..., cac t lieu cha cong bo c trch dan bi Yoshiharu Tsuboi...).

       Co y kien khac: a vua Ham Nghi ve nhng van tiep tuc Can Vng; lanh ao khang chien ch can Ton That Thuyet, Phan nh Phung... Bi le, mot nc co 2 vua la qua tao bao!

    (9) ay la loai thong tin ban an. Trong cac loai thong tin, loai ban an, cao th, mat th, mat du hien nhien co o kha tn cao nhat. Cac loai thong tin nay c phoi kiem va kiem chng bang suot ca qua trnh hoat ong lau dai va ket thuc cuoc i nhan vat lch s Nguyen Van Tng (b lu ay va chet chon lu ay biet x). k e t, e ngu ( cac tap 27 36), nhng van kien tren la hoan toan xac tn. Rieng k e luc (2 tap 37 38), ngoai tr ban an ve bon nhan vat chu chot [*] trong nhom chu chien a c xac nh o kha tn tuyet oi, th so van kien lien quan con lai, can phai ai loc (chung toi a thc hien bai viet).

     Nam 1890, Trng Quang an co dang s chay toi, keu oancho Trng Van e, do quyen li chnh tr thi b bao ho!? Ch co mot trng hp nh vay (xem ai Nam liet truyen, tap 3, sd., tr. 425 426). Ngi viet ngh  rang, ngoai viec cung chu trng cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi (05.7.1885), Trng Van e con c trao nhiem vu can hau va anh lac hng cac cuoc truy kch vua Ham Nghi ma thc dan Phap co quyet tien hanh. Rieng chi tiet (can hau, anh lac hng) nay, va vai tro tng t cua inh T Lng, can c nghien cu, xac minh them, mac du chung toi nhan thay a co u d kien trong NTL.CB., tap 36, tr. 223, 229, 234, 243.

[*] Pham Than Duat hoa ra ch la mot nhan vat rat m nhat, khong co ten trong ban an chung tham nay.

    (10) Xem them ve nhan vat inh Hoi (NTL.CB., tap 37, sd., tr.80, 224, 325): inh Hoi chong Phap, khong chong Trieu nh thi Nguyen Van Tng con gi v the.

    (11) B chu cua H. Le Marchant de Trigon: Nguyen Van Tng, thng th, sau nay la phu chanh, Van Minh, sau [na,] Can Chanh, Ky-vi-ba, phu trach oi ngoai, b ay vao nam 1885 Tahiti va mat tai o" [nhng ch trong dau [ ] (moc vuong) la chung toi - ngi chu thch (Nct.); xin lu y them: 29.8.1875 (mot ngan tam tram bay mi lam)]. (Trch t: H.Le Marchant de Trigon, bai "V ai bien au tien cua nen bao ho en Hue" [viet ve Rheinart], Nhng ngi ban co o Hue (BAVH., 1917), Nxb.Thuan Hoa, 1998, tap IV, sd., tr. 273).[Xin xem chu thch (8) bai Vai chu iem s hoc s lc can thiet khi cam nhan bai Giai trieu ]).

    (12) Tran Trong Kim nhan nh ve tac gia HTC. : "... ba Le tan Nguyen Nhc th [Bch] co the biet ung s thc theo cai quan iem cua ngi mnh bay gi" [!] (HTC., li ta Tran Trong Kim, sd., tr. X). Vi Tran Trong Kim, o la quan iem bao hoang. Ong ta cung trnh bay ro, ban HTC. ong tm c a b chep lai va chep sai nhieu cho. Trong li ta va phan chu thch, Tran Trong Kim cung co tnh xuyen tac them. Tat ca, nham muc ch "ap tan tanh" uy tn Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, theo y o cua thc dan Phap, ta ao. Do o, nhng oan khang nh net tch cc (yeu nc, chong Phap en cung...) cua Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet lai tr thanh vo cung gia tr, at mc xac tn rat cao. Va cung vi mc xac tn cao nh vay, oan viet ve am mu cua Rheinart va Hong Hu trong cai chet cua Kien Phuc (HTC., sd., tr. 31 - 34).

    (13) Ve long trung vi trieu Nguyen, xin xem them chu thch (2), (8), ban dch ngha bai th 53, "Neu len [nhng suy ngh trc] mo bnh Tay tng quan [c phong tc] quan cong [ho] Le, sach nay; xem ban tau a b lc, b sa cha cua Nguyen Van Tng, NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 224 - 225; xem Hanh Thuc ca, sd., tr. 43-48).

    (14) Noi theo ong Nguyen Xuan Que - ong Que cung ch nghe cha, ong noi lai - , o la hai cau chu thch, bi "xa tac" a bao gom "dan", con "quan" hay "quan vng", co khi ong nhat vi "dan", vi nc ("xa tac"), nh Ham Nghi, co khi la tai hoa, la noi nhuc cua To quoc, cua dan toc, nh Duc c, Hiep Hoa. Duc c, Hiep Hoa con la tai hoa, noi nhuc cua ca vng trieu nha Nguyen na. Truat phe, thi hanh an hai ten vua vo loai ay la lam sang ep luat phap nghiem minh, bat v than cua trieu Nguyen va gop phan lam ben vng trieu Nguyen bay gi, e cu nc, cu dan.

                Chung toi cung ngh o la hai cau bo sung (chu thch). Bai "Giai trieu..." thanh that ngon thap cu! Mi cau th, moi cau bay ch ay c sang tac trong tnh huong lch s ay vi tam the rieng cua Nguyen Van Tng, nh a trnh bay.

                o khong phai hai cau dung e sa cha, thay the.

    (15) Viec lap ong Khanh la chang ang ng, trai vi di chuc cua T c. Di chuc a ch ro: "ng K ngi yeu hay om, co tam tat, cha hoc thong ma kieu ngao, hay bi viec rieng cua ngi khac cho lam thang, eu khong phai la t chat thuan lng, theo li phai; s bon ngi kho lay li noi can c" (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 200 - 201). "Lam thang" la vi pham tnh trung trc, hay be cong s that! Mot tac gia thc dan Phap a viet: "Cha he x s nao, thi nao co ong vua b than dan oan ghet nh vua bu nhn ong Khanh" (Charles Gosselin, L'Empire d'Annam, Paris, 1904, tr. 267; dan theo Dng Kinh Quoc, Phan Canh, ao c Chng, Quynh C, o c Hung...). Vi bai "Giai trieu...", Nguyen Van Tng khang nh long mnh ch hng en vua Ham Nghi.

    (16) Ve Ton That Thuyet, ten ong hau nh luon luon gan lien vi danh tnh Nguyen Van Tng, hoac c goi chung la "hai ngi" trong NTL.CB., tap 35 - tap 37, chng to s nhat dang cao.

    (17) TRAN XUAN AN, tac gia bai viet va cung la ngi chu thch (viet tat: Nct.). ai t "chung toi" c dung ay nh mot cach khiem xng va tran trong, thay v ch "toi" gon lon va coc loc.  

 

TXA.

 

 

 

 

 

  Ban th nhat

Xep ch vi tnh t ban thao viet tay va trnh bay: LE K THNG, NGUYEN TH KIM QUY (theo he QuarkXpress, VNI-Times), trong nam 2000 (*).

  Ban th hai nay

TRAN XUAN AN (ngi bien soan) chuyen ban th nhat sang he WORD 2000, VNI-Times, vao sang ngay 13.03.2003 (11.02 Quy mui HB.3) va trnh bay lai trong ba ngay, t ngay 13 en 15.04 nam 2003 (12 14.03 Quy mui HB. 3).

  Lu y: noi dung hai ban eu y het nhau, ngoai tr bai phan tch cac chu iem s hoc e lam c s cho viec cam nhan bai th Giai trieu la co sa cha, bo sung t nhieu.

                                                                        

                                                                     TXA.

 

(*) XIN LU Y: AY LA BAN TH 2 CUA CUON SACH K V PHU CHNH AI THAN NGUYEN VAN TNG TH VAI NET VE CON NGI, TAM HON & T TNG.

 

Xin oc lai ghi chu cuoi bai, ben tren:

 

Bai viet di dang chu thch nay, chung toi a tach lam hai bai khao luan, sau khi bo sung luan c t lieu. Xin xem tap sach: Tran Xuan An, Nguyen Van Tng, nhng ngi trung ngha t xa, tng khong hn c.

 

 

____________________

 

 

 

a len web: 24-3 HB7 (2007), sau khi a a ban th nhat (QuarkXpress) len web vao ngay hom qua, 23-4 HB7 (2007) e lu.

TXA.