VAI LI THA THEM

 

Noi dung trang web di ay co 2 bai viet:

 

1. NGUYEN VAN TNG (1824-1886) VI NHIEM VU LCH S SAU CUOC KINH O QUAT KHI (05 THANG 7.1885) (VAI CHU IEM S HOC S LC CAN THIET KHI  CAM NHAN BAI GIAI TRIEU CUA NGUYEN VAN TNG)

 

2. BI KCH IEM NH MAU THUAN: 1883 1884

 

Ca hai bai (font VNI-Times) c chnh Tran Xuan An trien khai t 38 trang sach vi tnh thuoc cuon sach "K V PHU CHNH AI THAN NGUYEN VAN TNG  (1824 -1886) -- TH  -- VAI NET VE CON NGI, TAM HON VA TNG do Tran Xuan An bien soan, chu giai... (tr. 80 tr. 118, font VNI-Times / QuarkXpress, do hoa s Le Ky Thng va ch Cao Th Kim Quy xep ch t ban thao viet tay cua Tran Xuan An, thang 7 nam 2000). 

 

Hai bai nay sau o a a vao cuon sach co ten la NGUYEN VAN TNG (1824 1886), NHNG NGI TRUNG NGHA T XA TNG KHONG HN C, va cung vi cac bai khac (khao luan, bnh chu oi thoai), phu luc nguyen van ai Nam thc luc, nguyen van cac t lieu khac (cuon sach gom 283 trang sach vi tnh, 13 cm x 19 cm, font VNI-Times). 

ieu can nhan manh ay la:

 

Bai Nguyen Van Tng vi nhiem vu lch s sau Cuoc Kinh o quat khi 05.7.1885 a c ang tai trong cuon Hoi thao khoa hoc: Nhan vat lch s Nguyen Van Tng (1824 1886) Cac bao cao khoa hoc, Trung tam Khoa hoc xa hoi & nhan van Hue ai hoc Hue, Hoi Khoa hoc lch s Tha Thien Hue an hanh, Hue 02.7.2002, tr. 59 83.

 

Bai Bi kch iem nh mau thuan 1883 1884 va s chien thang cua nhom chu chien yeu nc a c ang tai tren Tap ch Xa & Nay (thuoc Hoi KHLS. VN.), so 118 thang 6.2002, tr. 18 19, xem tiep tr. 23 24.

 

Toi e nguyen font VNI-Times e a len web nay.

 

Xin lu y them: Cuon NGUYEN VAN TNG (1824 1886), NHNG NGI TRUNG NGHA T XA TNG KHONG HN C, Tran Xuan An a t nhuan sac vao nam 2003, c xuat ban vi hnh thc sach ien t vao thang 5-2005

( http://www.giaodiem.com/mluc/mucluc.html  ,

 www.tranxuanan-writer.blogspot.com ) va c xuat ban chnh thc vi hnh thc sach in giay, Nxb. Thanh Nien (Nxb. co gac lai mot so cau, oan), 9-2006.

 

Tp. HCM., ngay 16-3 HB7 (2007)

Tran trong,

Tran Xuan An

 

 

 

Di ay la cac trang t tr. 1 en tr. 173 cua cuon sach:

 

 

 

 

 

NGUYEN VAN TNG,

NHNG NGI TRUNG NGHA T XA,

TNG KHONG HN C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a ch tac gia:

 

71B Pham Van Hai

Phng 3, Tan Bnh

Thanh pho Ho Ch Minh.

 

TNR: [08].8453955.

   

 

 

 

 

 

TRAN XUAN AN

 

 

 

 

NGUYEN VAN TNG,

NHNG NGI TRUNG NGHA

T XA,

TNG KHONG HN C

 

 

KHAO LUAN VE MOT VAI KHA CANH S HOC

 

 

 

 

 

NHA XUAT BAN

 

 

BAN THAO HOAN TAT NGAY 19.5.2002

TAI THANH PHO HO CH MINH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Nay ta cung ai than Ton That Thuyet quanh quan, con ngi

la phu chnh ai than th lai ma thng am. Ke , ngi

i eu lay long yeu nc lo dan lam can ban; at tri cung

that chng giam .

 

HAM NGHI (va TON THAT THUYET),

mat du t Tan S gi NGUYEN VAN TNG,

ngay 02.06. At dau, 1885.

 

 

 

  Huan than tam s nh the, cang ang nh the,

that la au kho qua chng. Nhan vat nc ta, nhng ngi

trung ngha t xa, tng khong hn c .

 

HAM NGHI (va TON THAT THUYET),

mat du t Tan S gi hoang toc,

ngay 07.06. At dau, 1885.

 

 

 

 


 

CHAN DUNG

K V PHU CHNH AI THAN

NGUYEN VAN TNG

(1824 1886)

 

 

Bai th GIAI TRIEU, nguyen tac ch Han

 

        

 

 

             LI THA AU SACH

     

       Cuon sach nay ch la tap hp va phat trien nhng y tng chung toi a trnh bay trong mot vai cuon sach a viet ve nhan vat lch s Nguyen Van Tng. Co ieu, van e lai mot lan na c at ra ay la nham y nh e xuat yeu cau giai quyet that rot rao, dt khoat trong tinh than khoa hoc ch thc ve mot vai kha canh con ton ong tren trang bao nay, chng sach no nh di chng cua nh kien sai lam rat ang phien trach.

      Viec xuat ban ban dch Viet Nam vong quoc s cua Phan Boi Chau (thc ra la cua Lng Khai Sieu) vao nam 1982 va lai tai ban vao thi iem 2001, cach ay mot nam, trong tnh trang khong phe phan triet e mot cach khoa hoc vai trang ao ngc s that lch s ve Nguyen Van Tng trong tac pham ay, la ca mot thach o cong luan va bieu lo mot thai o phi hoc thuat ang kinh ngac. ay la cha ke en nhng soan pham, bai bao khac, c menh danh la nghien cu s hoc nhng thc chat la phi s hoc!

      Do o, chung toi xem nhng kha canh cua van e trong cuon sach nay la het sc can thiet phai at ra, va phai at ra mot cach trc tiep, ch ro ch danh. ong thi, t o, cung xin man phep vt len luan e cu the a neu e t nhieu e cap en mot vai kha canh co tnh chat l luan s hoc:

1.      Xac nh t lieu (phan loai, tham nh t lieu bang khoa hoc k thuat thc nghiem; khai thac, s dung t lieu).

2.      Tieu ch phan anh va nhan nh s hoc (quan iem, lap trng; ao l dan toc, cong l  nhan loai).

3.      oi chieu s hoc (s hoc cac nc, cac to chc co lien quan trong giai oan: Phap, Tay Ban Nha, Vatican [Rome], Hoi Truyen giao hai ngoai Paris, Trung Hoa, Thai Lan, Lao, Anh, c, Nga, c xuat ban t o en nay); oi chieu t lieu goc a c giam nh thc nghiem.

4.      Cac the loai s hoc va gia tr thuyet phuc ve tnh khoa hoc cua moi the loai.

5.      oi thoai va phan bien s hoc.

6.      S li dung s hoc vao muc ch tuyen truyen chnh tr nhat thi, va ao c, lng tam nha chep s, nghien cu s, sang tac h cau ve e tai lch s

      That ra, o la nhng kha canh chung toi cham phai trong qua trnh nghien cu ve Nguyen Van Tng (1824 1886) va giai oan au (1858 1885) cua cuoc khang chien 131 nam (1858 1989). o la cuoc chien tranh lau dai, ben b chong chu ngha thc dan Phng Tay, trc tiep la thc dan Phap, Tay Ban Nha, Hoi Truyen giao hai ngoai Paris, chong chu ngha banh trng ai Han, chu ngha phat xt Nhat, va chong chu ngha thc dan mi, trc dien la e quoc My.

      Van e Phan Boi Chau vi tac pham Viet Nam vong quoc s (c viet va ang bao, xuat ban thanh sach bi Lng Khai Sieu, mot ngi bao hoang, ai Han chu ngha hang nang) cung phai at trong boi canh xung ot chnh kien, ac biet la s xuyen tac, boi nho, ao ngc ban chat nhan vat lch s v muc ch tuyen truyen cho chu ngha bao hoang, ai Han, cho mot bo phan giao dan Thien Chua giao, va vo hnh trung, cho thc dan Phap, va cho nhng ke ban nc cau yen hoac cau vinh nh Duc c, Hiep Hoa, Hong Hu, ong Khanh, Nguyen Hu o, giai oan lch s ay

      Ngoai ra, chung toi con man phep oi thoai vi GS. Tran Van Giau, va bnh chu tuy but ve lch s cua GS. Bu Ke mot vai iem khong the khong oi thoai va bnh chu c, trong tinh than dan chu, chong thai o hoc phiet, thoi tat  nh kien sai lam trong hoc thuat (ieu ma hai GS., mot ngi con song va ang tiep tuc nghien cu, mot ngi a qua co, han rat vui long). Tinh than a pha nhng sai lam nguy hai trong s hoc, cu the la gian tiep a pha Phan Boi Chau (thc ra la Lng Khai Sieu) vi mot vai trang Viet Nam vong quoc s von ao ngc s that lch s ve Nguyen Van Tng, tinh than a pha o cua hai GS. la ieu ban than chung toi a va ang hoc tap, oi thoai, bnh chu, bi khoa hoc la mot cuoc chay ua tiep sc. Noi cach khac, tren con ng tiep can s that lch s, von co lam gai goc, may mu, chng ngai can chan, che mat, moi ngi, moi the he co trach nhiem noi bc nhau phat quang, don dep. Xin c bay to s tin tng: Nha nghien cu khoa hoc ch thc chnh la nha dan chu, dan chu that s va cu the.

      Trong cuon sach nay, chung toi con trch dan kha nhieu cac trch oan t  t lieu chuan c la ai Nam thc luc chnh bien IV,V,VI (1847 1888) va xem o la phan phu luc quan trong, can ban, lam nen tang cho cac y tng nhan nh cua chung toi.

      Tat nhien chung toi van cho rang s oi chieu s hoc, nhat la oi chieu t lieu goc (ung ngha cua thuat ng nay) la phng phap tot nhat e rut ra ket luan. oi chieu s hoc Phap, gom ca s hoc Hoi Truyen giao hai ngoai Paris, vi s hoc Trung Hoa va d nhien, vi s hoc Viet Nam, viet ve giai oan 1858 1885, nhat la oi chieu t lieu goc cua 3 nc va cua Thien Chua giao trong giai oan ay, la phng thc nghien cu, nhan nh co hieu qua chnh xac nhat. Va e co ket luan cuoi cung that s khoa hoc, nghiem tuc, van rat can to chc cac hoi ngh khoa hoc lch s vi nhng tham luan (co the ch gi en) cua cac nha nghien cu s, Viet, Phap, Tay Ban Nha,Vatican, Trung Hoa, Nhat Ban , cua cac s gia cac nc khac tren the gii chuyen nghien cu ve mang e tai nay. Trong thi oan bung no thong tin va thuan li ve phng tien i lai hien nay, o khong phai la mot yeu cau hoc thuat khong tng. Tuy vay, nh the van hi xa vi! Thiet thc nhat la thao luan tren dien an bao ch, hoi ngh khoa hoc tuy gon nhe, van co chat lng, nh a to chc thc hien trc ay. Tiec rang, hoi ngh ay cha i en ket luan dt khoat, nhat la con tranh ne mot vai trang ao ngc s that lch s trong Viet Nam vong quoc s. Tat ca cac tham luan ch gian tiep a pha Phan Boi Chau (thc ra la Lng Khai Sieu) kha canh o. Do vay, nen van e van ngang nhien ton ong!

      Dau sao, van khong the c e nhng van nan c ton ong trong khong kh tr tre mai nh the c. Xin hoi: Van nan lch s ay, xet t sau xa, la bi ai, nc nao, ton giao nao? Trach nhiem hoc thuat nay thuoc ve ai? Nha yeu nc Phan Boi Chau co trach nhiem g khong?Nha yeu nc au phai la khong sai lam! V muc ch tuyen truyen nen bat ke thu oan!?!

      Hoac gia, ch nen xem mot vai trang ao ngc s that lch s trong Viet Nam vong quoc s nh mot th phan bien s hoc kha vu v va qua ho o chang?Phan bien cung phai co c lieu, o la yeu cau khoa hoc toi thieu!

      Nhng cuon sach, bai viet cua ca nhan chung toi, trc het, co muc ch anh ong nh the.

     

 

      Chung toi cung t biet rang, nhan nh mot nhan vat lch s trong mot giai oan lch s nhat nh, se phien dien biet bao, neu khong khao sat toan bo hanh trang cua nhan vat ay va cac moi lien quan vi cac nhan vat khac trong boi canh chung va cu the.

      Le ra, t nhat cung phai khao luan ve cac kha canh noi bat khac cua Nguyen Van Tng, ch khong ch tap trung chu y vao giai oan 1883 1885 (va ca nhng thang ngay t luc b lu ay cho en trc 04 gi 30, sang sm 30.7.1886, phut ong trut hi th cuoi cung tai hon ao tu ay Tahiti). Noi cu the hn, le ra phai lu y them cac kha canh:

1.      Nguyen Van Tng va tnh cam gan bo vi cac nhan toc t ngi mien nui Quang Tr

2.      Nguyen Van Tng vi chu trng oan ket lng giao tren nen tang ao l Viet Nam (gom ca sach lc thoa hiep tam thi trong vu xung ot lng giao [khi ngha Van than] tai Nghe Tnh, 1874, ung nh tinh than trong sach lc cua Le-nin [V.I. Lenine] ve sau Nga, khi chnh quyen xo-viet cua Le-nin k hiep c Brest Litov ngay 13.5.1919 vi chnh phu Hitler: Thoa hiep vi ke thu [phat xt c, 1918] ma co li cho cach mang, chung ta van san sang thoa hiep).

3.      Nguyen Van Tng vi van e bnh ang trong viec khai hoang, cap phat, canh tac va ngha vu ong thue ruong at.

4.      Nguyen Van Tng trong 5 nam tieu ph pha Bac.

5.      Nguyen Van Tng vi quan iem chnh tr c tr, nhan tr i oi vi viec tang cng quan oi.

6.      Nguyen Van Tng vi lnh vc ngoai giao trc am mu tien hanh xam lc cua thc dan Phap, lc lng ta ao trong Thien Chua giao va s banh trng ai Han, trong na cuoi the k XIX.

7.      Nguyen Van Tng vi y thc canh tan at nc.

8.      Nguyen Van Tng vi van e tai chnh.

9.      Nguyen Van Tng vi van chnh luan va th ca.

      Va nhieu kha canh khac na  

      ong thi, hanh trang Nguyen Van Tng han phai c nghien cu trong cac mau thuan chu yeu cua boi canh Viet Nam, chau A va the gii na sau the k XIX. Viet Nam thu bay gi, phai chang la cac mau thuan:

1.      Chu ngha yeu nc, y thc khong co g quy hn oc lap, t do, quyet tam bao ve ban sac van hoa dan toc mau thuan vi chu ngha thc dan Phng Tay, chu yeu la thc dan Phap, ma 2 bo phan cau thanh cua chu ngha thc dan Phap la oi quan xam lc va cong cu no dch Thien Chua giao. T mau thuan nay, a nay sinh mot mau thuan ln, rat gay gat: mau thuan lng giao. Chnh Tran Trong Kim, trong Viet Nam s lc (1921), a viet: Dan dan ngi trong nc phan ra ben lng, ben giao, ghen ghet nhau hn ngi cu ch [b. 1964, tr. 343]. Mau thuan gia Phap xam lc Viet chong ngoai xam b ton giao au oc nen chuyen thanh mau thuan Viet ben giao Viet ben lng, ngi Viet ben giao thu han ngi Viet ben lng hn thu giac Phap!

2.       Mau thuan lau i gia chu ngha banh trng ai Han vi y thc nc ai Viet ta t trc, von xng nen van hien a lau, nui song b coi a chia, phong tuc Bac Nam cung khac (Nguyen Trai, Bnh Ngo ai cao). ay la mau thuan trong lien minh tieu tr giac C rat te nh va phc tap (Man a Han hoa   Han chong Thanh; Thai Bnh thien quoc a bien tng thanh ph ch thc; mu toan Hoa Phap cau ket xau xe Bac K), mau thuan trong lien minh chong Phap

3.      Mau thuan ang Trong ang Ngoai do hau qua khoang 200 nam Trnh Nguyen phan tranh, bieu hien bang ngon c a b lch s vt qua la hoai Le va ngon c phu Nguyen.

4.      Mau thuan gia khuynh hng canh tan va thu cu.

5.      Mau thuan gia cac khuynh hng chu hoa, au hang va chu chien.

      Cac mau thuan nay an ben vao nhau, giang xe lan nhau, au du, d doi, va chang cht, roi ram nhng cung kha rach roi, tuy luc, tuy viec. Trong 5 mau thuan na sau the k XIX ay, mau thuan 1 co tnh chat toan chau A, toan the gii van la c ban nhat, do o gay gat nhat, quyet liet nhat.

      Tuy nhien, cuon sach mong nay, chung toi ch dam gii han van e nh a tha trc tren, ch chu tam vao moi mot nhan vat tieu bieu nhat: Nguyen Van Tng (1824 1886), mac du Viet Nam vong quoc s, Phan Boi Chau (thc ra la do Lng Khai Sieu viet) au ch ao ngc s that lch s ve Nguyen Van Tng ma thoi!

     

      ieu cuoi trong li tha au sach nay, chung toi xin trnh bay ro: Lch s la chuyen qua kh. Co lam ngi van muon gac lai tat thay cac chuyen qua kh cach ay a hn 100 nam, bi cho rang: luc nay, ang trong thi oan m ca, oi mi, xac lap quan he quoc te a phng, hu ngh va hp tac vi ca cac the lc cu thu, hay e lang quen cua thi gian xoa du vet thng cua giao dan Thien Chua giao va xoa du noi au khac ve chat cua bao ngi co lien quan en giai oan lch s ay. Nhng co ngi khong muon tiep tuc b lam nan nhan cua s la bp nen quyet tam lam ro s that lch s e dan bc vao tng lai, cho du s that lch s oi vi ho au thng, nhuc nha en the nao i na. Lai co ngi muon ao ngc s that lch s e gianh chnh ngha ve pha mnh, hoac t ra cung bien minh mot cach gia tra cho ton giao mnh trot tin theo, hay cho mot mu toan phuc hoi che o phong kien ma nen tang t tng cua no la chu ngha bao hoang ngu trung. Va, co ngi kien quyet phe phan nha Nguyen vi tat ca quan lai cua no bat chap lng tam, thay mac oan khoc

      Phai chang qua that chung ta khong biet s gac lai van e lch s thap gia va li gm von la mot y o thc dan, la nguyen nhan lam keo dai cuoc chien tranh le ra khong dai en 117 nam hoac 130 nam, cu the la co lam nan nhan cam sung cho ke thu lien minh vi bon ta ao trong Thien Chua giao, v b bng bt, xuyen tac, ao ngc s that lch s hoac t ra cung b phn pht,lt qua?

      au phai s gia ch thc cac nc cu thu muon b cng bc ngoi but, ban re s nghiep nghien cu? au phai khong co s k ve cac s gia? S gia cung c bnh cong va b luan toi!

      au phai nhan dan cac nc ay muon mai b la doi, nh a tng o mau cho s la doi o?

      Khoa hoc lch s la en ai, bia a, bien ong ghi cong.     

      Khoa hoc lch s la phap nh, la toa an nghiem minh xet x.

      Canh ca tng lai van m rong

      Chung toi ch mong s hoc phai la khoa hoc lch s ch thc, va ngi Viet Nam hay la ngi Viet Nam ch thc vi lch s chan thc cua dan toc, gom nhieu nhan toc, tren To quoc mnh

      Do o, chung toi manh dan xuat ban cuon sach nay.

      Xin c ch day, gop y, phe bnh, va mach bao ve t lieu.

                                                                           

Thanh pho Ho Ch Minh,

thang 4, Nham Ngo, nam th 2 cong nguyen Hoa Bnh

 (thang 5. 2002).

 

TRAN XUAN AN

 

 

 

 

 

 

TRAN XUAN AN

 

NGUYEN VAN TNG (1824-1886) VI NHIEM VU LCH S SAU CUOC KINH O QUAT KHI (05 THANG 7.1885)

(VAI CHU IEM S HOC S LC CAN THIET KHI  CAM NHAN BAI GIAI TRIEU (1) CUA NGUYEN VAN TNG).

 

    GIAI TRIEU

     Tam thap nien lai ph k kinh

     Vo oan da ban bach sau sinh

     K khai tam sac, van loi bien

     Gia thnh song xuy, ke khuyen kinh

     Sn knh van trung thng thuy lien

     Than tam nhat dang luyen an nh

     Th phi nhien pho thien thu hau

     Xa tac quan vng thuc trong khinh?

    

    CHIA TACH TRIEU CHNH

     Ba chuc nam qua ph tr mnh

     Na em, gian ta! Ep buon sinh

     C chia ra khoanh, giong quyen bien

     Kep siet theo roi, cho hai kinh

     Nui biec van trung, lo kieu Ng

     Long son mot dang, luyen san nh

     Phai, chang, ay gi nghn thu luan

     Theo nc pho vua, au trong khinh?

                   (Ban dch th t nguyen tac ch Han).

 

    Hai cau bo sung:

    CHIA TACH TRIEU CHNH

 

     U trung thuy bach thien thu hau?

     Xa tac quan dan thuc trong khinh?

 

     Sau kn long trung, sau ai to?

     To quoc, dan, vua, au trong khinh?

 

     T th chia tach trieu chnh nhng van nhat dang khi t tnh huong ma Du Can vng ghi ro: T xa ke sach chong giac khong ngoai ba ieu: anh, gi, hoa. anh th cha co c hoi [ieu kien thc lc TXA. chua them (:ct).], gi th kho lng c sc, hoa th chung oi hoi khong biet chan. ng luc s the muon van kho khan nh vay, bat ac d phai dung quyen [quyen bien TXA. ct.].

                           (Chu Thien Hoang Minh Giam dch).

      Hai mat du Ham Nghi cung Ton That Thuyet t Tan S (Cam Lo, Quang Tr) gi ve cho Nguyen Van Tng (02.6 At dau) va hoang toc (07.6 At dau, 1885) cung noi en ke sach quyen bien vi nhiem vu ke cua Nguyen Van Tng.

     1) Tat nhien, xa tac, quan, dan, thuc trong khinh?, cau ay a ra mot s chon la vi hanh ong chnh tr cu the trong tnh huong lch s cu the, ai la ke , ai la ngi i.

     Chnh trong mat du gi ve t Tan S, Ham Nghi (va Ton That Thuyet) a dung hai t ay vi xac quyet: Nay ai than Ton That Thuyet cung ta quanh quan, con ngi [Nguyen Van Tng TXA. ct.] la phu chnh ai than th lai ma thng am; ke , ngi i eu lay long yeu nc lo dan lam can ban; tri at cung thc chng giam (ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien, tap 36, Nxb. KHXH., 1976, tr. 225 226). Mat du ay cung vi Du Can vng c gi ve va phat i trong mot ngay (02.6 At dau: 13.7.1885).

     Nguyen Van Tng a chon la v tr giap mat vi ke thu mot cach trc dien, mot v tr ma Ton That Thuyet khong co kha nang am ng. Ke , cung la nhiem vu ba T Du giao pho (NTL.CB., tap 36, s., tr. 221 va tr. 230; Hanh Thuc ca, Nxb. Tan Viet, 1950 [?], tr. 39 40). Nguyen Nhc th Bch ke bang th:

           Thay ngi trc on len ng

           Gi rang: Co Nguyen Van Tng chc ay

           Phan rang: S a dng nay

           Ngi tua [:lo; nen ] lai, ngo ray x phan

           Vang li Tng mi lui chan

           Gia ra khoi ca, dan lan doi theo.

      Va Dau Tuat nien gian phong hoa k s:

           Thuyet Tng sanh s s sanh [?!]

           em Ham Nghi tron bon hanh Khiem Lang

           Cung nhau ban luan ra rang

           Thuyet i ho gia, Tng bang ve au

           Kheo lam chc nhiem [ nhn?] mu sau

           Phap quan mac mp tng au thiet tnh.

                                      (trong ang c Tuan, tinh hoa

                                       cong giao ai quoc[!], Lam Giang,

                                       Vo Ngoc Nha su tam, Sai Gon,        

                                       1971, tr. 516 - 517). 

     Cho du vi cach dien at theo quan iem thuoc chnh kien nao i na, hai oan th tren cung phan anh ve mot s that lch s!

     2) U trung thuy bach thien thu hau?. o la noi ban khoan cua Nguyen Van Tng t ngay 23.5 At dau (1885).

     2.a. Qua cac t lieu lch s co tnh cung thi, sau khi oi chieu, loai tr, thay ro Nguyen Van Tng van cong khai au tranh vi De Courcy, De Champeaux, Silvestre, Nguyen Hu o trong hai thang sau em Kinh o Quat Khi (22 23.5 At dau, 1885). Hn the na, ong con ngam ch ao phoi hp vi phong trao Can vng.

     2.a.1. NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 236 237, a ghi ro, tat nhien vi giong ieu va cai nhn cua ngi chep s bao hoang di che o phong kien. Dau vay, qua o, hau the van thay Nguyen Van Tng khang khai, khong he chu khuat phuc khi oi mat vi ke thu a thang tran, vi bon tay sai von a t lau ban linh hon cho quy thc dan va ta ao: Lay quyen tong oc Ha Ninh la Nguyen Hu o thang th Vu Hien ien ai hoc s, sung C mat vien ai than, van sung Bac k kinh lc ai s. Khi ay Hu o a tr ve Ha Noi, o thong Phap la Co-ra-xy [De Courcy TXA. ct.], kham s la Tham-bo [De Champeaux TXA. ct.] ban noi: Hien nay Bac k lam viec, Hu o ay hieu nhieu, nen trao cho ien ham, sung vien chc, va van sung chc s ay; pham oc, phu, bo, an, cac tnh Bac k cho en cac phu huyen, neu ni nao co khuyet, cho do Nha Kinh lc s chon tau, ch ch nh oat. Nhiep chnh Mien nh, phu chnh Nguyen Van Tng phuc tau viec o la tam thi, ngh nen tam nghe y o ma lam. Van Tng nhan phung du [cua T Du TXA. ct.] noi: trai bay ly do. Lai noi: do ngi tuy viec thoa ban vu hp thi nghi e xng vi li khen cua ngi mi c. V y am ch che Hu o nng ta vao the quan Phap, e c ngoi cao, ma khong phai t ban y do menh lenh cua Trieu nh vay.

     (Trc ay, Nguyen Van Tng cung Ton That Thuyet cho rang Hu o Ha Noi phan nhieu hay nnh hot, quan Phap rat c vui long; C mat vien nhieu lan em viec tau len, chuan cho khien giang hay trieu ve, Hu o eu c quan Phap che ch, rat la ang ghet.

     Ngay thang 7 nam ngoai, khuyen Bui Hu Tao lay viec xay sinh t [cua Nguyen Hu o TXA. ct.] e tau hac, v muon nhan o e ay Hu o en toi. Hu o cha s bat bnh a lau. Gan ay o thong Phap t Bac ve S quan, tc th trc mi Van Tng va Thuyet en hop. Thuyet ng s cho la han Hu o a co ngam ch the nao, nen mi nh the, cho nen sau khong chu i; ben gay han; en ay [Hu o TXA. ct.] ve kinh,  [ y TXA. ct.] lai en S quan, roi ve nha rieng [cua Hu o tai Hue   TXA. ct.], uy on nhiep chnh Tho Xuan vng Mien nh ti ban vi Van Tng; va [Hu o TXA. ct.] giem [ rang TXA. ct.] khong ban vi Tho Xuan vng th ng i. Kp khi Hu o ti S Thng bac ma Van Tng o, hai ngi noi chuyen vi nhau, a hi co y khiem hoa; Van Tng phung du nay, li le lai co y che ngam theo kieu b l xuan thu [: be ngoai vi l le khac nhau nh mua xuan vi mua thu TXA. ct.]. Hu o tiep du, gian lam, nhan o cang them e long).

     Qua giong ieu va cach nhn khong c trong sang lam cua nha chep s trieu Nguyen, chung ta gat i kha canh b nhuom mau ca nhan hiem khch, se thay ro, thc chat, o la cuoc au tranh ve van e bo tr quan chc Bac k, van e chong bon tay sai, c hoi, Nguyen Hu o la tieu bieu.

     Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, trc o a ac biet em cau xem gio chuyen buom trach Hu o (N TL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 157 158). Ma au ch Nguyen Hu o! Cung mot giuoc vi y, con co Nguyen Trong Hp (sd., tr. 157 158), Hoang Cao Khai, Nguyen Huy Lan (sd., tr. 210, 213 214) va bat ng nhat, con la Nguyen Than (con trai Nguyen Tan), lan Phan nh Bnh!

     Thc chat cua van e bo tr nhan s ay, xet cho cung, la van e con  hay mat Bac k. o la noi dung cua khoan 7 hoac Patenotre (1884).Va tai sao luc o, kinh o a that thu, Nguyen Van Tng van khong chap nhan nh quan Phap co kiem c quan Nam nao nen lam hoan cach, co xin cach hoan ay, tc lam hoan cach (sd., tr. 166), ma ch mien cng, xem la tam thi, con oi hoi Phap phai trai bay l do (sd., tr. 236), mac du T Du a chap nhan? Phai chang Nguyen Van Tng ang da vao sc quat khi cua phong trao Can vng ang day len khap ca nc, va theo mat du Ham Nghi gi ve: cung y [De Courcy TXA. ct.] giang ro ve l the, can nhac ve li hai, het long thoa hiep [:hiep ban thoa man oi ben TXA. ct.], pham nhng khoan g bach thiet, phai chung nhau ban oi (sd., tr. 226)?

     Dau trong the ket lch s nh vay, Nguyen Van Tng van au tranh trc dien vi De Courcy, De Champeaux, Nguyen Hu o ma NLT.CB., tap 36, tr. 236 237 a ghi, nh a trnh bay phan tren. Viec Nguyen Van Tng phai k phu c vi Silvestre, Nguyen Hu o (30.7.1885) a c mieu ta:

           Phap nhan lap c hoi ong

           Nhng ieu lan hiep kho long y theo

           Van Tng chang khng thuan chieu

           Trai tnh, Hu o mn ieu Bac quy.

                                  (Hanh Thuc ca, sd., tr. 48).

      T nam 1921, ngay di che o thc dan, Tran Trong Kim a viet mot cach kn ao:

      Trong khi vua con i vang, thong tng De Courcy at ong Tho Xuan len lam giam quoc, giao binh quyen Binh bo thng th cho vien kham s De Champeaux, e bai viec binh lnh cua ta i [TXA. in am (i.)], va goi quan kinh lc Bac k la Nguyen Hu o va quan tong oc Nam nh la Phan nh Bnh ve cung vi Nguyen Van Tng coi viec C mat. V hai ong ay Bac k a hieu moi viec va a biet theo chnh sach bao ho [TXA. i.], cho nen thong tng em ve e thu xep moi viec cho chong xong. Nguyen Van Tng va Nguyen Hu o khong hp y nhau [TXA i.], Nguyen Hu o lai tr ra Bac k (Viet Nam s lc, Nxb. Tan Viet, b. 1964, tr. 553 554; Nxb. VHTT., b. 1999, tr. 582 583).

      Hp y the nao c vi ke ban nc, a biet theo chnh sach bao ho, thc dan Phap bao g nghe nay!

      2.a.2. Mot van e gay can na la Nguyen Van Tng khong ch phai oi pho vi Phap va bon c hoi, tay sai, ma con phai oi pho vi phe chu hoa, ng au la T Du cung Mien nh (giam quoc, nhiep chnh). Mien nh la mot ngi co t cach hen ha en mc nga tay xin tien kham s Phap, en noi ong Khanh cung cho la nhuc quoc the (NTL.CB., tap 37., Nxb. KHXH., 1977, tr. 43)!

     oi vi T Du, Nguyen Van Tng phai lam ra ve b Ton That Thuyet la doi (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 224 (2)). Ong trong the ket, nen phai v nh gia ong va Ton That Thuyet cha he ban bac e khi binh em 22 23.5 At dau (05.7.1885), mac du ay la cuoc khi binh bat ac d, b Phap ep vao the chang ang ng:

           Bang con y the qua ngang

           Thi ta se lieu quyet ng hn thua!.

                                         (Hanh Thuc ca, sd., tr. 36).

     Biet se co kha nang b that thu, nhng cung anh lieu may rui vi tri (Bu Ke, Chuyen trieu Nguyen, Nxb. TH., 1990, tr. 97).

     Cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi ch nham phat ong tong noi day Can vng tren toan quoc e au tranh ngoai giao, chnh tr.

     Nguyen Van Tng gia v khong biet g het trong em 22 23.5 At dau, 1885 (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 220) e lai lam nhiem vu am phan cua ke , trong khi Ton That Thuyet la ngi i.

     Phng thc khong biet g het c Aldophe Delvaux cho la: Ong phu chanh th nhat (Tng) a mien cng hanh ong di anh hng ngong cuong cua ong Thuyet, bat chap moi li khan cau cua me vua T c va ong hoang Hoai c (em vua Thieu Tr) [thay Hong Hu TXA. ct.] la nhng ngi chong lai cac s van ong cua phai yeu nc (Delvaux, bai Phai bo Phap Hue va nhng phai vien au tien, Nhng ngi ban co o Hue  (BAVH., 1916), tap 3, ang Nh Tung dch va mot nhom dch gia khac hieu nh, Nxb. TH., 1997, tr.74 (3)). Theo Delvaux, ay la tin tc mat tham cua Phap trong buoi sang 04.7.1885 ma De Champeaux nam c! That ra, Nguyen Van Tng a cho phep va a thay mat vua ra lenh cho Ton That Thuyet chuan b khang chien, lap ao quan Phan Ngha cho them thanh the (1883 05.7.1885), e au tranh vi Phap (NTL. CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 63 64, 220).

     2.a.3. Qua vay, Nguyen Van Tng a lanh ao C mat vien hop ban rat b mat. a en luc khong the khong thc hien ke hoach Nguyen Van Tng, Than Van Nhiep, Nguyen Quynh vach ra, va Nguyen Van Tng a ch than, t nguyen tien hanh bc au t 1864, 1866 (NTL.CB., tap 30, Nxb. KHXH., 1974, tr. 170 172; tap 31, Nxb. KHXH., 1974, tr. 86 87, 103). o la viec m thng ao, xay dng thanh luy Tan S. Khat vong khang chien ay con the hien bai th Benh trung k phong ong ch (K V phu chnh ai than Nguyen Van Tng, th, cha xuat ban, bai so 38, tr. 271) (4) c viet vao quang thi gian con tieu ph pha bac, khoang nhng nam au cua thap k 70 (the k XIX). Va vao nam 1883, ke hoach o lai c tien hanh (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 64 66; Delvaux, bai viet sd., tr. 54). Trong thi iem cu the 1885 nay, Ton That Thuyet cung nh Nguyen Van Tng, ca hai cung nhat dang, nhat tr vi s tong hp phng thc: va khang chien vu trang (anh), va khong biet g (am), phng thc ong a tng au tranh thang li vao cuoi nam 1873, au nam 1874. Thang li ay, ngay ca Quoc trieu chnh bien toat yeu (ban dch tieng Viet cua Quoc s quan trieu Nguyen, Nxb. Thuan Hoa, 1998, tr. 502 504) lan Viet Nam s lc (Tran Trong Kim, b.1999, Nxb. VHTT., tr. 545 546) eu ghi nhan va trch dan nguyen van cuoc oi thoai gia Nguyen Van Tng vi Philastre mot  cach than phuc (5). Con ay la oan oi thoai gia vua T c vi trieu than va Nguyen Van Tng ve phng thc khong biet g ket hp vi tien cong vu trang, sau khi a thanh cong:

     Vua bao [] Viem va Thuyet mua ong nam ngoai  [21.12.1873 TXA. ct.] giet c au so giac, lam mat kh the cua chung, Nguyen Van Tng nhan ay de lam viec; Van Tng noi: tuy co tr ngai mot chut, nhng thc giup c nhieu, ay la li bnh tam khong khoe cong. Viem va Thuyet nen [c TXA. ct.] phong tc, gia lai chc quan (NTL.CB., tap 33, Nxb. KHXH., 1975, tr. 26).

      o la luc thu hoi lai bon tnh Bac k, sau khi ha sat Francis Garnier trong s tc toi ien cuong cua Puginier, Rheinart va bon du dan trong giao dan (Tsuboi, Nc ai Nam oi dien vi Phap va Trung Hoa, UB. KHXH. TU. TP. HCM., 1990, tr. 117).

      Phng thc o, mi nam sau (1883) van con hieu qua, vi cai chet cua Henry Riviere, cung do quan Lu Vnh Phuc ha sat, tai Ha Noi.

      Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet lai tien hanh mot lan na, d doi va quyet liet hn, ngay tai kinh o Hue, 1885.

      Dau that bai, Nguyen Van Tng, sau 05.7.1885, van tiep tuc au tranh. Bi the va lc so vi 1873, 1874 a ngat ngheo hn, Nguyen Van Tng khong con tam the ung dung nh mi hai nam trc, ma ang vo cung kho tam. De Courcy khong b ha sat! Mang Ca va Toa Kham khong b triet tieu nh mong muon! De Courcy va De Champeaux lai ang nhan danh Trieu nh e thao tung!

      Do o, phong trao Can vng vu trang a bung len khap nc!

      Quoc ke chia tach trieu chnh nhng van nhat dang, phoi hp b mat nhng rat chat che, la mot sang tao rat tao bao, trong ieu kien the va lc luc bay gi!

      Qua viec trch dan nhng t lieu cua Puginier, theo giao s Nguyen Van Kiem, K yeu Hoi ngh khoa hoc ve e tai Nhom chu chien trong trieu nh Hue va Nguyen Van Tng, HSP. TP.HCM., 20.6.1996, tr. 14, chung ta thay ro s that lch s, vi s mieu ta cua chnh oi phng, ve no lc cua Nguyen Van Tng: Vua Ham Nghi i theo Thuyet con phu chnh Tng lai, van gi nguyen chc tc, va sau mot thi gian tra hang, lai tiep tuc co nhng hanh ong oi khang. Chnh theo lenh cua y ma khoang 30.000 giao dan a b hai ch trong vong 2 thang va hn 1.000 ngi khac cung chu chung so phan do cac quan lai thi hanh menh lenh tren.

      Delvaux, trong bai viet sach a dan, tr. 57, tr. 79 80, oan cuoi tr. 81 82, cung mieu ta canh sat ta ao trc va sau 05.7.1885, ac biet la sau ngay lch s bi hung ay, tai Bnh nh, Quang Tr, Nghe An. Tran Trong Kim trong Viet nam s lc, Nxb. Tan Viet, ban 1964, tr. 554 cung ghi ro: Ton That Thuyet [] lam hch Can vng truyen i khap ni []. Sach tay chep rang [] dan ben ao phai tam ong co va hn hai van ngi b giet.

      oi phng a ket an Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet la tan nhan, hieu sat! S tan nhan, hieu sat (hai t nay ve sau cung b Tran Trong Kim xuyen tac!), theo cach noi cua cac gian iep thc dan trong lot ao ta ao, khi ong t  luc Phap anh chiem Thuan An (Hue, 1883). Bi ta ao cung chang khac g nhng nam trc o, a Nang, Gia nh, va Hai Dng, Ninh Bnh (6):

           Ngoai thi Tay tac li giang

           Trong thi ta ao chay quanh bon be

                      (oan Trng, Trung ngha ca, 1866).

      Do o, khong the khac c, Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, hai ngi thiet ke chien lc va chien thuat cho cong cuoc khang chien chong Phap bay gi, vi t cach la hai ngi lanh ao cao nhat C mat vien luc ay, a phai kien quyet. S kien quyet o, Aldophe Delvaux a viet lai theo giong ieu thc dan ra ve khach quan cua y:

      Trieu nh thay nguy c mat oc lap, a ban bac ngam cac phng ke e chan ng s lan chiem cua Phap. []Ton That Thuyet, []Nguyen Van Tng a loi keo Hoi ong C mat thoa thuan hai van e quyet nh nh sau: Ra mot mat lenh cho cac s phu nh ro ngay tan sat cung luc tat ca giao dan trong toan quoc [!sic ! TXA. ct.]. Sau khi loai ke tiep tay cho quan xam lc se chuyen Trieu nh va Chnh phu en mot phao ai kien co, va en cac vung hiem tr bat kha xam pham. o chnh la Cam Lo hay ung hn la Tan S, va o la trung tam lien ket lc lng ai quoc, la ni Trieu nh se tam dng chan. Cac chuan b k quac e hnh thanh do nhng k niem qua kh [cua Nguyen Van Tng vi vung at Cam Lo TXA. ct.], tham hai thay, lai a c thc hien mot phan ln (A. Delvaux, NNBCH. [BAVH., 1916], bai viet va sd., tr. 54).

      Theo Jabouille, phu trach To chc cong vu Phap, cong s Phap tai Quang Tr:

      Cac ngi chong Phap noi rang: Nhng ngi Thien Chua [giao TXA. ct.] phan boi To quoc e lam li cho nc Phap. Chung ta ch hoa bnh khi nao ngi Phap khong co s ung ho trong nc []. Viec anh lay Thuan An, va buoc chap nhan o ho lam cho ong phu chnh Tng tc gian tot o; nhng ong Tng am tham, can than e nen s tc gian e dung no vao mot dp thuan li (Jabouille, bai Mot trang viet ve lch s Quang Tr: thang 9.1885, NNBCH. [BAVH., 1923], tap X, Phan Xng dch, Nguyen Vy hieu nh, Nxb. TH., 2002, tr. 439).

      Va s the, theo Puginier viet ve thi gian hai thang sau ngay Kinh o Quat Khi (22 23.5 At dau, 1885), nh a trch dan, chac chan ch v tnh huong lch s bat buoc, bi, giao dan thi bay gi, noi nh  oan Trng t  trc 1866:

           Gia-to noi ng ghe thay

           Giup em lng thc chang ngay nao khong.

      en 1885, s noi ng cua ta ao Thien Chua giao a qua cong khai. Sach Compendium cua Ravie (Ra-vier), co oan viet: Bay gi mi noi cn bao tap rat d doi qua sc; t khi nc Nam co ao chang he bao gi bon ao phai cc khon cc nan bang bay gi; v trc kia, khi cam ao, ch co quan quan i bat b ma thoi, con dan ngoai th chang lo viec ay, lai cung thng ke b bat b. Con lan nay quan va dan ngoai eu ong tam hiep lc ma quyet tan diet ke co ao (trch theo GS. Tran Van Giau, He y thc phong kien va s that bai cua no trc nhiem vu lch s [tap I cua bo sach SPTTTVN.TTK.XIX. CTT.], Nxb. TP.HCM.,1993, tr. 368, 370, trch dan Compendium historicoe Ecclesiasticoe cua H. Ravier; xem NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 242, 245 246). Va theo Delvaux:

      Cac quan chc khong muon dnh lu vao, s co s khong may ve sau [cach dien at cua Delvaux TXA. ct.], nen e viec o cho cac s phu am nhan, con rieng ho van trong bong toi.

      Trong cac tnh, trong khi cac s phu chuan b chien au, th cac v quan ln lo tran an cac cong chc cua chnh quyen bao ho cung nh cac v linh muc va giao dan. Khi moi viec chuan b a xong xuoi roi, cac s phu tien chiem thanh tr cua cac tnh, va cac quan tnh th nhanh tay giao nap cac thanh tr ay, sau mot vai s phan khang qua loa; va nh the la nhng cuoc cat co [!sic ! TXA. ct.] bat au (bai cua Delvaux, sd., tr. 78 79).

      Cac quan tnh th nh the, con Nguyen Van Tng? Nguyen Van Tng cung khong the khac hn:

      Tng De Courcy lay tin tc [ TXA. ct.] ong Tng, ong nay eu bao am rang s trat t an ninh ang hnh thanh khap ni. [Trong khi o TXA. ct.], cac tin tc bao ong don dap t mien nam [ta k TXA. ct.] c gi en. Tng Prudhomme muon biet tng tan tnh hnh that s cac viec, a c ong De Courcy chap thuan va cho phep en cac ni ay. Ong i cung ong De Champeaux tren chiec tau Le Lutin va en Quy Nhn ngay 18.8, va ong a muc kch toan la mau la [!sic ! TXA. ct.] (Delvaux, bai a dan, sd., tr. 79).

      Lai theo Jabouille:

      Mot vai nha truyen giao trong tnh va mot vai ong quan cho biet rang nam 1885, nhat la vao thang 9, tnh Quang Tr a la hien trng cua mot cuoc tieu diet co phng phap, c tien lieu, co to chc, e loai tr cac ngi theo ao Chua, gay ra bi ang cua Van than, co s ung ho tinh than cua t nhat la hai quan phu chnh (Jabouille, bai a dan, sd., tr. 434).

      Cac nha truyen giao o chnh la Aldophe Delvaux, Henry de Pirey nhng ke a ra ve khach quan, thc chat lai thu han sau sac Nguyen Van Tng, ngi a b  Chnh phu Phap ay cho chet ! Gat i nhng xuyen tac, bop meo, ba ra cai goi la y ngh quan chung e boi nho cua cac ten thc dan, ta ao trong cac bai viet cua chung vi muc ch tra thu, phuc han, se thay s that lch s a dien ra.

      S that lch s ay a dien ra, bi le, Trieu nh Hue vi lc lng vu trang khap cac tnh ang b suy yeu, nhng that s lc lng quan s cua Phap cung khong ln, nen van e do tnh the at ra la can phai tieu diet bon du dan noi phan, nham co lap bon thc dan Phap, bien chung lam vao tnh canh nh cua gay cang, mac du chung chiem c kinh thanh Hue, tham ch chung at c ach bao ho len co cua dan toc ta! (Xem them: Delvaux, bai a dan, sd., tr. 47; Tsuboi, sd.[trch dan Puginier qua Louvet], tr. 82 (6)).

     Va bi le, quan trong, quyet nh hn, ay la khong con cach nao khac, trong iem nh cua mau thuan oi khang, gia lc lng dan toc, yeu nc vi bon thc dan Phap ma hau thuan cua chung la ta ao. o la bien phap chang ang ng trc s lan hiep cua thc dan va du dan, e cung co lai chnh quyen nham lam hau phng cho phong trao Can vng, chong Phap bang vu trang va bang thng thuyet. Bien phap bao lc quyet liet ay, xuat phat t tnh the: khong con hau phng, hau thuan nc ngoai nao khac! Chung toi nhan manh: khong con hau phng, hau thuan nc ngoai nao khac!(7). Va lai, au ch bi menh lenh cua Nguyen Van Tng phoi hp vi Du Can vng cua Ham Nghi, Ton That Thuyet, trong cuoc noi day toan quoc nay, ma con do chnh sc manh quat khi hoan toan t giac cua nhan dan!

      Chung toi a oi chieu vi ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien e ngu k (tap 36, sd., tr. 244 246), va thay rang hien thc mau la ay la co that. Tuy nhien, con phai thay ro, Delvaux, Puginier, H. Ravier, Jabouille, cac ten thc dan khac a thoi phong con so giao dan theo Phap xam lc en mc kinh hoang. S thoi phong qua ang ay (ngay ca trong ve That thu kinh o, Nxb. TH., 1983, cac cau 1337 1348) la nham bien minh cho viec Phap at ach o ho len co dan toc ta, nham kch ong giao dan mau quoc va Toa thanh La Ma (8).

      Nh the, ch co the la: v tnh huong lch s, Nguyen Van Tng khong the bay to cho moi ngi biet, chnh ong cung Ton That Thuyet a chuan b, roi cung tien hanh cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi, lai phoi hp lien lac thng xuyen vi phong trao Can vng cung theo cach va tien cong vu trang (ke anh), va khong biet g (ngi am), cho en ngay Nguyen Van Tng b ay i Con ao; va uy tn Nguyen Van Tng qua ln, chung ay ong tt tan Tahiti, gan nam chau My, sau nhieu thu oan li gian Nguyen Van Tng vi Ton That Thuyet (nh vu ot nha Nguyen Van Tng chang han)!

     Viec Nguyen Van Tng b lu ay, lai theo Delvaux, ngoai vu Paris tai Viet Nam, trong bai viet sach a dan, tr. 80: Mot s mau thuan sau xa chia re tng De Courcy va ong De Champeaux, nhat la oi vi van e ong phu chanh Tng. V tng th qua quyet la ong Tng luon luon lien lac vi ong Thuyet va [trc o TXA. ct.] lai nhung tay vao moi cuoc am mu lat o, va em xuong tau ay i Con ao ngay 6.9 [1885 TXA. ct.]  [] lai chuyen en Tahiti []. Ong De Champeaux lai cho rang anh hng cua ong Tng la rat ln [].

     Tat nhien, Delvaux van cai vao bai viet, ngay ca oan van tren nhng cau cha ng s m dan, s that thiet, chang han nh s o lng cua chung, thi iem Nguyen Van Tng chet (xem them chu thch (15)).

     Chung toi cung khong trch dan e nham neu len s mau thuan trong noi bo ke thu, cach oi x oi vi Nguyen Van Tng, theo quan iem thc dan rieng cua moi ten au so giac. ieu ang lu y, chung qua quyet la ong Tng luon luon lien lac vi ong Thuyet, anh hng cua ong Tng la rat ln. ieu nay khp vi ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien: hai mat du Ham Nghi gi ve, va chac han co nhng tap tau oi cua Nguyen Van Tng gi len chien khu Tan S. Viec an sat Quang Tr Ton That Nam c uy nhiem len Tan S hop vi Ton That Thuyet cung a c ghi nhan ro (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 229).

      Phng thc khong biet g, khac vi lan thanh cong cuoi nam 1873 bc sang 1874, la lan nay (1885) khong co oan ket chien thang, nen Nguyen Van Tng khong c dp cung Ton That Thuyet bay to trc Tam Cung va nh than cung nhan dan. Tuy nhien, Quoc s quan trieu Nguyen biet ro ieu o. Chi tiet Du Can vng va mat du gi Nguyen Van Tng t Tan S (Cam Lo, Quang Tr) c viet mot ngay, phat i va gi ve mot luc (02.6 At dau, 1885) a lam sang to. Va ban an chung tham cao th cua hai ten De Courcy, De Champeaux, vo hnh trung, lam sang to nh mot xac quyet cua lan s (tn s). Chung toi sau khi nghien cu tron e t, e ngu, e luc k (tap 27 tap 38) cua ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien, lu y en ban an ve Nguyen Van Tng, a hn mot tram nam trc c Quoc s quan can than ghi chep lai, thay rang ban an cua thc dan oi vi Nguyen Van Tng , ke thu khong oi tri chung cua chung, vo hnh trung ma hien nhien, la ban an ep nhat, rc r nhat, cha tng co trong giai oan au chong Phap cua dan toc ta, mot giai oan lch s bi hung nhat vi mot nhan vat bi hung nhat: Nguyen Van Tng!

     Tat nhien, phng thc khong biet g cung a gay ra qua nhieu ngo nhan va de b xuyen tac. Song oi vi ong, ngi cung thc hien ke hoach khang chien vi ong (mac du Ton That Thuyet trc thang 11 al., 1881, hau nh khong biet g ve Tan S, he thong sn phong va thng ao Bnh nh Nghe An), Ton That Thuyet nhan tat ca hao quang bi trang. Noi the, thc ra, Ton That Thuyet cung b xuyen tac, boi nho, nhng ke thu kho long xuyen tac, boi nho hn, va hau the cung de thanh minh hn, bi Ton That Thuyet la hnh anh cua ngi khang chien trong ieu kien be tac chung cua cac nc A, Phi, My la tinh thu bay gi! Trong khi o, ngi ta de anh ong hoac nham lan Nguyen Van Tng vi canh chu hoa, au hang!(Xem them: chu thch (13)).

      Phng thc tong hp, khong biet g (ke , au tranh bang thng thuyet) va chien au vu trang (ngi i, au tranh bang quan s), Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet a hp lc tien hanh, trong lan Kinh o Quat Khi (05.7.1885), dau sao, cung a sang to.

(Ve viec Nguyen Van Tng cung Ton That Thuyet ban bac ke hoach, cung to chc cuoc Kinh  o Quat Khi, 23.5 At dau [1885], xem Bu Ke, Chuyen trieu Nguyen, Nxb. Thuan Hoa, 1990, tr. 59, tr. 95 101, ac biet la tr. 97 98; xin xem them: Pham Van Sn, Viet Nam cach mang can s,  Sai Gon, 1963, tr. 29 31; Nguyen Ba The, Nguyen Q. Thang, T ien nhan vat lch s Viet Nam, Nxb. VHTT., 1999, tr. 706 707; Dau tuat nien gian phong hoa k s, trong ang c Tuan, Lam Giang, Vo Ngoc Nha su tam, Sai Gon, 1970, tr. 478 479; Silvestre, Khoa hoc chnh tr k yeu, 1898, tr. 93 94; Gosselin (tac gia LEmpire dAnnam, Paris, 1904) cung co y kien nh vay ben canh nhng chi tiet ba tac khac. S d chung toi cho rang ieu o la ung v NTL.CB, e luc k, tap 37, sd., tr. 35 cung ket an (!) Nguyen Van Tng eu la be ang lam loan; thc la can nguyen tai va (tr. 33), Nguyen Van Tng lien quy quyet em than quay ve thu toi vi quan o thong Phap, roi a b toi lu (tr. 132 141); trong VNSL., Tran Trong Kim cung dung ch au thu vi ngha au hang (tat nhien la tra hang, va tra hang e tiep tuc au tranh, e phe chu hoa, than Phap, ta ao khoi cp chnh quyen). Tai sao Tran Trong Kim va chung lai bao Nguyen Van Tng au thu, tra hang, con nhng ngi ve hp tac vi chung th khong? Phai chang ve sau, Phap biet Nguyen Van Tng va Ton That Thuyet ban nh trc? Rat tiec cuoi cung ong van b tng ke tu ke cua Caspar, De Courcy Chac chan ong a lieu trc nguy c ay, nhng khong con cach nao khac, e cu van tnh hnh kinh o that thu, nen anh lieu may rui vi tri mot lan na!).  

      2.b. Trong hai thang sau ngay Kinh o Quat Khi va b that thu, t 05.7 en 06.9.1885, cac nha s hoc thng quy het trach nhiem cho Nguyen Van Tng. Can thay ro, trong hai thang ngan ngui ay, Nguyen Van Tng het b quan thuc bi lnh Phap, ai uy Schmitz (A. Delvaux, bai viet  tren, sd., tr. 77), lai b chi phoi bi De Courcy, Caspar, trc tiep la De Champeaux, pho cong s Hamelin. De Champeaux tr thanh thng th Bo Binh, C mat vien ai than cua Trieu nh Hue!

      Ve cai an t hnh cua ang Hu Pho (con trai cua pho ma Cat, ong hng vi Nguyen Luan), NTL.CB., tap 36, sd. a ghi ro noi dung tr. 240 241: ang Hu Pho chong viec phu Tha Thien sc cho huyen Quang ien tang cng quan so. Nh the, vo hnh trung ang Hu Pho a tiep tay cho Phap trong viec Phap yeu cau Trieu nh khong c tai vu trang (tap 36, sd., tr. 223). Ve pha Phap, dau vay Phap van xem ang Hu Pho noi loan! Va chnh ang Huy Xan, chu ruot cua ang Hu Pho, a la bat ong, em nop cho giac (theo mot so t  lieu va ang pha)! Vu Le Trung nh cung nh the, nhng dang cu the khac. Le Trung nh lai ton phu Tuy L vng (tap 36, sd., tr. 238), mot nha th chu hoa, cau ket vi Phap thi Hiep Hoa, b ay vao Quang Ngai! Do viec ton phu nay, ngi ta tng Le Trung nh la ke c hoi! ung nh mot cau trong sac du cua T Du lau nay von do Nguyen Nhc th Bch viet thay: Ba thang b ng, bon bien am vang (tap 36, sd., tr. 250; ai Nam liet truyen, tap 3, Nxb. TH., 1993, tr. 78)! ang Hu Pho, Le Trung nh yeu nc, chong Phap, nhng lai qu quang, thieu sang suot. S ch ao cua Ton That Thuyet, Nguyen Van Tng cung cha sau sat, cu the tng bc i. Khi ngha hng ng du Can vng la ung, nhng chong Trieu nh luc Nguyen Van Tng con gi v the hay ton phu Tuy L vng la sai (mac du Mien Trinh t choi)! Bi le, Nguyen Van Tng van nhat dang vi Ton That Thuyet trong nhiem vu ke , ngi i. Va lai, quyet an ang Hu Pho la do trieu ngh, Trieu nh lai co ca De Champeaux v tr trong than, chu chot, quyet nh! T Du, Mien nh chuan y! Con Le Trung nh lai do chnh cac tnh than va Nguyen Than hoi ban, chem trc, bao cao sau! (tap 36, sd., tr. 239). Do o, khong the quy het moi viec Phap nhan danh Trieu nh e o ca cho Nguyen Van Tng! Vi chnh tr, chung ta phai thong cam, tham ch co nhng viec rat kho tam, cung phai v chap nhan e qua mat giac Phap va phe chu hoa, chang han nh cung Trng Quang an viet th cho Ho [Van] Hien a Ham Nghi linh hon cua cuoc khang chien ve lai Hue trong khi Phap van tiep tuc lan hiep (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 235)[(9) va xem them chu thch (11)].

      Nhng cung can thay ro, sac du ve viec truy bat Ton That Thuyet, Tran Xuan Soan, treo giai cho ai bat c, chem c, chnh ong Khanh ve sau cung xac nhan la do T Du ban hanh (tat nhien T Du cung anh phai theo yeu cau cua Phap!) (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 235 236; tap 37, sd., tr. 175).

      Hn na, s hoc phai phan tach ro h chieu va thc chieu ! Nhng g Nguyen Van Tng lam c cho viec tai cung co vng quyen nha Nguyen t Trieu nh cho en huyen xa, cho phong trao Can vng la nhng ch ao va thanh van, va khau lenh, va cong khai, va ban cong khai, trong nhng luc thoat khoi oi mat cu vo cua bon De Champeaux, bon chu hoa (thc chat la au hang) (9)    

      Trong mot mat du t Tan S gi ve cho hoang toc (07.6 At dau [18.7.1885]), sau khi hieu ro nhng g Nguyen Van Tng a tien hanh Hue, Ham Nghi (va Ton That Thuyet) a viet:

      Nay a co phu chnh huan than Nguyen khanh [tc Nguyen Van Tng TXA. ct.] lai giang noi, che ch nhieu viec, hi c yen on; huan than tam s nh the, cang ang nh the, thc la au kho qua chng. Nhan vat nc ta, nhng ngi trung ngha t xa, tng khong hn c. Tram cung du cho ai than ay het long ban tnh cong viec, tau ch quyet nh (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 227). o la mat du gi cho hoang toc, Ham Nghi (va Ton That Thuyet) a viet ve Nguyen Van Tng nh vay. Va, ung ra, moi sach lc eu do Nguyen Van Tng gop phan vach ra, t nam 1866 (NTL.CB., tap 31, sd., tr. 86 89, tr. 103), Ham Nghi (va Ton That Thuyet) ch nhac lai. ieu ang lu y trong mat du nay la Ham Nghi, Ton That Thuyet a rat thau hieu va chia se noi kho tam xe ruot cua Nguyen Van Tng trong nhiem vu lch s vi vai tro am phan a c phan cong, t sau ngay Kinh o Quat Khi va b that thu.

      2.c. ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien, t tap 36 tr ve trc, du trong xieng xch y he bao hoang, van the hien c tinh than chong Phap, lap trng yeu nc. tap 36, sd., tr. 247, a ghi ro:

      o thong ai Phap la Co-ra-xy [De Courcy TXA. ct.] bat thai pho, Can Chanh ien ai hoc s, lanh Lai bo thng th, kiem sung C mat vien ai than, K V quan cong, la Nguyen Van Tng xuong tau thuy chay i Gia nh. C theo li cao th cua kham s Tham-bo [De Champeaux TXA. ct.] noi: Van Tng tng a chong c nc ay [nc Phap TXA. ct.] thc a nhieu nam. T khi cung Ton That Thuyet sung lam phu chanh, chn [: von TXA. ct.] lai ong suat quan quan noi day cong kch quan binh nc ay  [nc Phap TXA. ct.]; va Van Tng do o thong ay xin [chnh phu Phap TXA. ct.] cho hai thang [nham e TXA. ct.] lo lieu viec nc cung Bac k cung c lang yen vo s;  [k thc TXA. ct.] en ngay 27 thang ay het han, ma cac tnh ta k ve pha nam (9),(10), co nhieu ni noi quan chem giet dan giao. en ay o thong ay nh an, NG [:NEN ; PHAI] ket toi lu.

     Hom ay ch em Van Tng en ca bien Thuan An. Buoi chieu Nguyen Hu o, Phan nh Bnh i tau thuy Phap cung ve en ca bien ay.

      (Thuyen Phap ch Van Tng en Gia nh, sau ch gom ca Pham Than Duat, Le nh em ve nc ay [thuoc a Tahiti TXA. ct.]; Than Duat trong khi i ng b om chet trong tau, buong xac xuong bien) .

      o la ban ket an cua thc dan Phap! (Xem lai: Delvaux, bd., sd., tr. 79).

      Ban ket an cao th ay a lam bung len mot cuoc sat ta d doi tai Quang Tr t ngay 06.9.1885 (28.7 al., At dau)! ( Xem lai: Jabouille, bd., sd., tr. 434, 439).

      Va ay la quoc th cua ten vua tay sai, bu nhn ong Khanh, co chi tiet vu va, o toi khong ung s that, co chi tiet khang nh ung (oi chieu vi ngon ng tng minh, cuoi tap 35 va tron tap 36, sd.). Li le ay giong li cua y:

      Quyen than la Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet []. Ngay 23 thang 5 nam nay, kinh thanh that thu, xe tien e di i, hai ngi ay thc la can nguyen cua  tai va [] (NTL.CB., k e luc k b bao ho, tap 37, sd., tr. 33) (9).

       nh than, noi theo cach noi cua Tran Trong Kim, nhieu ngi a biet theo chnh sach bao ho cho nen moi viec trong Trieu eu c yen on (VNSL., b.1964, tr. 554 va 555). nh than ay cung Ton nhan phu ket an (!):

     Ton nhan phu va nh than dang s tau bay toi trang cua Nguyen Van Tng va Ton That Thuyet, xin tc het quan tc va tch thu gia san; tham tri Trng Van e a qua co, va chng ve Tran Xuan Soan, eu la be ang lam loan, cung tc ca quan chc. Trong bon ay, th Ton That Thuyet, Tran Xuan Soan, xin do quan a phng xet bat bang c va chem ngay, e to ro hien phap trong nc. Vua nghe theo (tap 37, sd., tr. 35) (9),(11).

     Li du va cao th cua ong Khanh va kham s  Phap cung cac kham sai cua Trieu nh, trong chien dch triet ha uy tn nhom chu chien (in ra, niem yet khap ni):

     Tom lai, la do t Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet long quyen [].Hai quyen than ay lan nay on lap, nhieu viec man muoi [!], trc th li ve de khong che, sau ch mu cho ban than [!]; bong dng gay han [!], nghieng o ton xa, bat hiep vua chay i; Nguyen Van Tng lien quy quyet [? mu tr! TXA. ct.] em than quay ve thu toi [!] vi quan o thong ai Phap, roi a b toi lu, Le Thuyet [b oi ho TXA. ct.] th song mot cach tam b trong rng. May ma nc ai Phap  co long nhan th [!], giup ta chan hng [!] c nc a mat [!], noi  lai c the a t, nc nha o mi con [!] (tap 37, sd., tr. 133) (9).

      ung la giong li hen ha, anh gia ngc mot cach trang trn tat ca!

      Duy tram tin la cac s phu, thc tnh la nhan nham, ch khong co long lam loan; Trieu nh a em au moi hoa loan, la t Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet gay ra, noi ro rang vi quan ai Phap, a tin khong ng, e cho Trieu nh ta phai x tr ngay, cho lng giao eu c yen on (NTL.CB., tap 37, sd., tr. 134) (9).

      Cung nh cach thoi phong, bp bm, ham ho cua cac ten thc dan, gian iep oi lot ton giao, khai niem, con so dan giao, cua ong Khanh, Hector va cac kham sai cung the. Chung muon bien cuoc khang chien chong Phap xam lc, bao ve van hoa dan toc thanh cuoc chien tranh ton giao, con cuoc xam lc cua thc dan Phap thanh thanh chien, thap t chinh (bay gi nhan dan, s phu goi thap gia la thap ac), nham kch ong giao dan mau quoc, kch ong ca Toa thanh La Ma (Rome)!

     Thc ra, Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet cung phoi hp menh lenh, trong tnh huong buoc long phai e ra ke sach chia tach trieu chnh (anh va am), ch nham vao thc dan Phap, bon lnh le dng (legionaire etrangere), bon co ao lam gian iep cho Phap, bon Viet gian, trong o co mot bo phan khong t la du dan ch thc.

     S kien o, ngay ca trc khi Nguyen Van Tng b lu ay, T  Du a hieu ra, va bang ngon ng tng minh, a ch ro nguyen nhan ong thi anh gia ung, t ra la hai iem sau ay:

     T ieu c tai nh [Patenotre TXA. ct.] a c phan minh, khien nc Phap trc t bai hoa gay bien, th pham ai at vua, cung eu thu ghet  [giac Phap TXA. ct.], ai bao la khong nen. Khong g bang cuoc ngha c em 22 thang 5 nam nay (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., cuoi tr. 244), gom ca hien thc mau la sau o

      Tuy the, cao th niem yet cua trieu ong Khanh va Hector cung cac kham sai co nhien van la luan ieu vi cach anh gia ngc theo tieu ch goi giac bang ngai, goi ngi yeu nc bang nghch, ngha c quat khi la lam loan:

      Nay Le Thuyet, tron tranh rng gap ghenh, mot than tuy nho, ma coi at tri nh con hep; Nguyen Van Tng th a b i ay; tc la tri tr ke tat ac []. Khong ng bon ngi [tc la cac s phu, nhan dan TXA. ct.] theo y lam lieu, [] khang c menh lenh Trieu nh, cam tam het long trung vi ke thu [tc la Ham Nghi, Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, nhng theo mach van, th ch nham en hai phu chnh TXA. ct.], t Hai Van tr vao nam, khong cho nao la khong loan [khi ngha TXA. ct.], rat ang quai la; sao khong xem chau Hoan, chau Dien, Quang Bnh, Quang Tr, mn tieng la xng ngha, can vng, eu em than bon cho ong co, mi nha th chn nha het sach; con nhng ke lot li, th b ma oc, kh nui (NTL.CB., tap 37, sd., tr. 138).

     Nhng c lieu tren, nhat la long trung thanh cua s phu va nhan dan trong phong trao Can vng oi vi Nguyen Van Tng, a khang quyet khong he co Du Can vng so 2 bao gi! (Xem them: Tran Viet Ngac, bai Chieu hay Du Can vng?, K yeu Hoi ngh khoa hoc lch s, HSP. TP.HCM., 20.6.1996, tr. 25 30).

   ung nh nhan nh cua De Champeaux, uy tn, tam anh hng cua Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet va nhom chu chien la rat ln. Thao nao chung tm cach li gian, khch tng, mu toan li dung, va v khong li dung c, chung lai boi nho en the, tham ch con ba tac ra cai c goi la Du Can vng so 2 ! oi vi chung ta, hai ban ket an chung tham cua De Courcy, De Champeaux, cua ong Khanh, Trieu nh tay sai, bu nhn, chnh la li tong ket tron ven nhng cuoc i au tranh kien cng ma linh hoat, cua Nguyen Van Tng va cua nhom chu chien trong s nghiep chung cua bao s phu, cua nhan dan chong thc dan Phap xam lc, gom ca hai thang va sau o, t sau ngay Kinh o Quat Khi (22 23. 5 At dau, 1885).

     2.d. Cung ro rang Nguyen Van Tng, suot ca quang i au tranh vi thc dan Phap, t au en luc trut hi th cuoi cung Papetti, thu phu x ao Tahiti, ni chon lu ay cac nha chnh tr chong Phap, ong luon soi suc mot moi cam thu sau sac oi vi bon thc dan cp nc mnh. Chnh ke ng pha oi phng, H. Le Marchant de Trigon, thanh tra chnh tr va hanh chnh An Nam, ngi Phap, a viet, trong NNBCH. (BAVH., 1917), tap IV, Nxb. TH., 1998, tr. 272 273:

    Than oi, ngay ngay hom sau [tc la ngay ke tiep ngay 29.8.1875 chung toi can c vao bai viet e chua ro TXA. ct.], nhng thu oan pha roi co he thong cua Nguyen Van Tng (12) keo dai cho en ngay chiem cang Thuan An  [8.1883 TXA. ct.], va con ve sau nay, cho en khi ay ke thu khong oi tri chung cua chung ta, va trong thi gian [b lu ay TXA. ct.] o, [Nguyen Van Tng TXA. ct.] chang chu hieu biet g cung chang chu quen g.

     Ke thu a viet nh the ve Nguyen Van Tng (K V ba), goi qua trnh au tranh chong Phap tren mat tran chnh tr, ngoai giao cua ong mot cach khiem nha nh vay: nhng thu oan pha roi co he thong! Thc ra, o la mot qua trnh au tranh cam go ay mu tr, lien tuc, nhat quan, kien nh, ben b suot may chuc nam tri lam quan. Va qua that, ong la ke thu khong oi tri chung cua thc dan Phap cho en luc b ay, b chet. Lam sao chung mua chuoc c ong, khien ong bui tai quen i moi cam thu giac Phap canh canh trong long va noi au au tm cach cu nc, cu dan, quet sach bon chung, ngay trong thi gian b ay, ngay trong phut cuoi cung cua i mnh, ngay 30.7.1886!

      o chnh la c s lch s cua ieu Nguyen Van Tng muon gi lai nghn sau trong bon ch: nhat dang va u trung:

           ng nui van trung lo kieu biec

           Long toi mot dang gi san son

 

           Niem trung sau kn, sau ai to ?

           To quoc, vua, dan, au nang hn?.

                                 (Chia tach trieu chnh).

      Bon ch nhat dang, u trung a c bao chng bang s that lch s!

      3) To quoc, vua, dan, au nang hn?. Long trung cua Nguyen Van Tng va nhom chu chien Trieu nh Hue kien quyet chong giac va bon phan quoc a lam sang choi ch trung chan chnh, rat co ien va rat truyen thong.

      Nguyen Van Tng va nhom chu chien Trieu nh Hue a chon la ung trong bi kch nh iem mau thuan. Ho cung a tra li ung cau hoi: Xa tac, quan, dan, thuc trong khinh?, trong s phan cong cho em Kinh o Quat Khi va trong viec giao nhiem vu sau em lch s 22 23.5 At dau (ch t 05.7.1885 en 06.9.1885! Tiec thay!).

      Ngi nong can hoac cam tam cau hoa, thc chat la ban nc cau vinh, ch t la cau an, c mai la mnh doi ngi, cho rang Nguyen Van Tng tham lam, tan nhan, quy quyet, Ton That Thuyet t hoc, hen nhat, hieu sat va cung tham lam, quy quyet, Pham Than Duat ao ngu (bo cuoc) vo tnh hoac chu y ri vao luan ieu tuyen truyen va m dan, va oc ac: ap tan tanh uy tn cua nhng trung than sang suot, het long v nc, v dan va v trieu Nguyen; va trc mat thu bay gi la ap tan tanh quoc ke chia tach trieu chnh nhng van nhat dang  cua Nguyen Van Tng va Ton That Thuyet, nham dap tat phong trao Can vng (13) (xin xem lai: chu thch (11)).

      Nguyen Van Tng dung cam, mu tr va nhan mot ket qua bi at, am tnh hi sinh cao ca hn Ton That Thuyet nhieu lan. Nguyen Van Tng con la mot Nguyen Trai, tuy bi kch moi ngi mot khac khong co quan he yeu ng g vi Hoc phi (ba c phong hoang thai phi nh me ruot cua Hiep Hoa, v Hiep Hoa a tao ra tien le).

      T lieu c viet bi thc dan, tay sai (15), bi nhng ngi b bo buoc bang xieng xch bao hoang, ke ca nhng ngi yeu nc thien can, v thien can ma sa vao am mu li gian (am mu li gian ca sau ngay 23.5 At dau,1885) cua Phap, cua cac ten thc dan oi lot giam muc, linh muc, can c oc mot cach tnh tao vi s phan tch, ai loc khoa hoc. Ch trong viec phe lap t 1883 en 1884, cung a lam van e!

      Tuy nhien, cuoi cung, s that lch s a c sang to, ke ca ch trung trong quan he ong ch.

      S that lch s a sang to, t ra la t di trieu vua Thanh Thai, co ieu, co lam ngi khong co ieu kien nhn thang vao s that lch s, vao chan dung cao ep, anh hung bi trang ch thc cua Nguyen Van Tng va nhom chu chien, mac du ch la nhng chan dung cha toa sang het o sang, bi bo s, dau la tn s, van b nhuom mau sac bao hoang (tap 27 tap 36), roi mau sac phan quoc, vi cach anh gia ngc (tap 37 tap 38)! K e t (1847 1883) va k e ngu (1883 06.9.1885) phai cat vao kho s va phat hanh han che, trong khi o, k e luc (06.9.1885 1888) lai b truyen ba khap ca nc, dung e giang day trong nha trng thc dan na phong kien!

(Chnh ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien, e t va e ngu k, bien soan chu yeu di thi Thanh Thai, lai khac in cung thi Thanh Thai, nam th 6 (1894) en nam th 14 (1902) Thanh Thai la con trai cua Duc c! a lam sang to nhan cach ao c cua Nguyen Van Tng trong bi kch b vu khong nay, cung nh tat thay nhng vu viec khac, mot cach chi tiet trong han che cua y he bao hoang! [NTL.CB., cac tap 27 36, sd.; li du va t tau ve viec khac in, tr. 12 va tr. 17 (tap 27), tr. 5 va tr. 13 (tap 36)]. Con e luc k gom hai tap 37, 38 viet ve trieu ong Khanh, khac in vao nam 1909, co li du cua Duy Tan (con qua be) ngi ca ca ong Khanh (14) bu nhn, tay sai hen ha, chong ngi yeu nc chan chnh va phong trao Can vng ay [NTL.CB., tap 37, tr. 5 6], han la ANH GIA NGC e lu s that. Chnh Duy Tan lai theo con ng cua Ham Nghi, vi s ban bac, thc hien ke hoach cung Thai Phien, Tran Cao Van, cung la theo ke hoach 1885 cua Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet trc o. Hai v vua yeu nc nay a b Phap lu ay nh Nguyen Van Tng. [Chung toi khong muon noi en giai oan sau cua vua Duy Tan!]).

        Nh vay, t nhieu nguon t lieu, cua thc dan, tay sai, gian iep oi lot Thien Chua giao (15), t lieu can ban va quan trong nhat la cua Quoc s quan trieu Nguyen (quan iem chep s t cho yeu nc, chong Phap, chong ta ao, co nhien van bao hoang, t nhieu ngu trung [hai k e t, e ngu] i en chap nhan tieu ch anh gia ngc, goi giac xam lc bang ngai, goi ngha s la giac; chong ngi yeu nc chan chnh [k e luc]) en ca t lieu suy dien, xuyen tac ve sau (gom ca thien can, ngo nhan), chung ta eu co the i en mot ket luan nhat tr ve tron cuoc i hoat ong cua Nguyen Van Tng. Nguyen Van Tng, mot nhan cach choi sang, mot nha hoach nh chien lc, chien thuat, mot nha chnh tr, ngoai giao tai gioi, giau mu tr, mot chien s v tr lanh ao cao, ch thc co pham chat anh hung, biet chien au va biet hi sinh mot cach dung cam. o khong phai la li khang nh suong rong, neu chung ta that s cong tam trong nghien cu, suy ngam.

     Va co the khang nh bi kch cua Nguyen Van Tng la bi sau ch: bnh Tay, sat ta, tra hang va bi cau th  xa tac, quan, dan, thuc trong khinh?.

     Hai cau oi knh vieng linh cu Nguyen Van Tng a the hien cam ngh cua ngi ng thi luc bay gi ve ke sach cua mot lanh tu a nam gi van menh at nc va a b giac Phap xam lc lu ay:

           Quoc ke th phi lan s nh

           Thien phng sinh t nhan th ieu!

                                           (Vu T Van? ao Tan?)

           Ke sach [cho] at nc, ung [hay] sai,

                          [se do] tn s [s co iem con lan]

                          nh luan

           [] phng tri, song [hoac ] chet, th xa

                          [buoc vao chan nhan c] vat v

                          [trong gio]

           Ke nc ung sai trang s quyet

           Phng tri song chet canh hong chao!

                                           (Nguyen Manh Hao dch).

     Tat nhien lch s a ghi nhan. Va Nguyen Van Tng khong chu trach nhiem sau khi ong a b lu ay biet x, t ngay 6. 9.1885, trc van menh cua To quoc.

     Mat khac, Nguyen Van Tng con la mot nha th. Ong khong nhng co tai ngon ng, trong cac van ban ngoai giao, chnh tr, trong au tranh cac cuoc hoi ngh nh vua T c a gian tiep khen ngi khi so sanh vi Nguyen T  Gian (NTL.CB., tap 33, sd., tr. 126 127), Nguyen Van Tng con la mot nghe s cua nghe thuat ngon t tinh dieu (li chau phe Thi tap).

     Chien au mat tran vi gm ao sung an, au tranh trong thng thuyet ngoai giao va tren trng chnh tr, cung vi viec lam th, tat ca ch la mot, eu khi t trai tim yeu nc, thng dan, long cam thu giac va bon tay sai.

 

                                                                                                   TRAN  XUAN  AN

 

 

 

   (1). Giai trieu con co ngha la tan tac trieu nh.

    Bai th nay a c truyen tung t sau ngay Kinh o Quat Khi (23.5 At dau, 1885), nh mot mat lenh phoi hp gia phong trao Can vng vu trang va nhng ngi lai; sau o, bai th ch c ghi lai bon cau cuoi vi ban dch khong ro y, b xuyen tac (xem Phan Tran Chuc, Vua Ham Nghi, Nxb. Chnh Ky, Ha Noi, 1951; Nxb. Thuan Hoa tai ban, 1995, tr. 83 84). Do bai th c truyen khau, nen co mot vai ch b d biet cac d ban, nhng y ngha van khong thay oi.

    Ngoai ra, con co mot so ban khac, in nhieu sach bao, thng ch trch dch bon cau cuoi.

    Theo ong Nguyen Xuan Que (hau due Nguyen Van Tng), cuoi bai Giai trieu, co mot cau chu thch them vi noi dung nh tren cung vi hai ch Manh T, y muon nhac en cau kinh ien cua Nho giao: Dan vi quy, xa tac th chi, quan vi khinh (dan la quy, at nc la th nh, nha vua ch ang xem nhe).

    Boi canh lch s  cung la c s cho viec mao muoi khao d, hieu nh, nham xac nh ung ban goc, nguyen tac cua Nguyen Van Tng.

     Sau ay la ban dch ngha:

Ba chuc nam qua, uong ph bao nhieu s tng trai!

Na em, gian ta! [Giac Phap] ep noi buon nay sinh

C xo ba mau [tam tai], sam set quyen bien

Kep-tra-khao theo cap roi, cho ga kinh s

ng nui van trung, lo lang cho kieu vua xanh biec [kn ao]

Long ke be toi mot dang, thng-men-khong-n-ri-bo san son

ung, sai, ieu ay, gi nghn thu sau [nh luan]

at nc, nha vua, au la trong, la khinh?.

    [Gia: cai kep dung e tra khao; luyen: thng men khong n ri bo].

  

   (2). Tap tau Nguyen Van Tng gi Tam Cung Quang Tr a b Phap duyet (viet nien hieu Ham Nghi nhng ong an quan phong cua Phap). o ch la tap tau oi pho. Chung toi xin nhan manh: Do o, noi dung ch co tnh chat oi pho, trc het va ch la oi pho vi Phap, nen d nhien la khong hoan toan ung vi s that, khong the hien hoan toan ung t tng, y ngh Nguyen Van Tng trong moi quan he ong s, ong ch vi Ton That Thuyet cuoc ngha c em 22 thang 5 nam nay va nhng cong viec sau o. Noi dung nh sau:

-          Nguyen Van Tng cho rang Nguyen Van Tng a b Ton That Thuyet la doi [1.Nguyen Van Tng khong biet viec Ton That Thuyet anh up; hoac ung hn la: 2. Nguyen Van Tng khong ng Ton That Thuyet khong chu cho a Ham Nghi ve nh ke hoach a ban].

-          Tam Cung gia ca, vua Ham Nghi nho tuoi, khong u sc chu ng gian kho chon rng sau nc oc [ni ma Nguyen Van Tng co gan 12 nam lam tri huyen, bang bien; cha ke 5 nam tieu ph nui rng bien gii pha bac, cung chon rng sau nc oc nh the].

-          Hn na, khong the giao cho Phap va con o kinh thanh, lng mieu [chung co the ton lap len bat k ten vua bu nhn nao].

-          Do o, Nguyen Van Tng phai tuan theo sac van (y ch) cua vua, cua Tam Cung ma lai Hue e lo viec giang hoa, e cu van tnh the va ngan chan s cp pha, tan sat kinh thanh; bi le khac, Nguyen Van Tng t nguyen cung vi non song xa tac ma mat con, khong dam la bo [Ton That Thuyet se sang Trung Hoa].

           Chung toi man phep lam ro ngha hn bang cac ch trong dau moc vuong:[ ]. Xin xem nguyen van: NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr.224 225.

  

 (3). Ve t lieu A. Delvaux s dung trong bai viet (1916):

     Lch s s lc ma toi ke ra ay ve cai nha [Toa Kham Hue TXA. ct.] va nhng ngi a chiem c ngoi nha ay [cac kham s thc dan Phap TXA. ct.], hau nh oc nhat au tien la da tren cac tai lieu chnh thc cua Nha nc [Chnh phu Phap va chnh quyen bao ho TXA. ct.], c bo sung bang nhng k niem cua c giam muc Caspar, la nhan chng sanh soi va nhieu khi con la dien vien quan trong cua nhng s co a xay ra thi k ay tai Hue.

     Trch: Delvaux, bai Phai bo Phap Hue va nhng phai vien au tien, NNBCH. (BAVH.,1916), tap 3,  nhieu ngi dch, Nxb. TH., 1998, tr. 29.

     Delvaux con viet them cac bai:

-          Phap anh chiem Hue (NNBCH., [BAVH., 1920], tap VII, Bu Y, Phan Xng dch, Nxb. TH., 2001, tr. 338 375). ay la mot bai viet khong chu yeu can c vao t  lieu goc (van ban, van kien chnh thc) cua Phap, mac du co phu chu (nh  but pham cua Silvestre ), ma lai da vao ve That thu kinh o vi thu thuat xuyen tac phi l va trang trn bai ve ay (Nguyen Van Tng lai cau ket vi Nguyen Hu o!!! [* ]), va da vao cai goi la y ngh quan chung do co ao Henry de Pirey ba tac ra, hoac  do tuyen truyen cua cac ten linh muc thc chat la thc dan nay trong quan chung giao dan ma lan truyen thanh d luan (H. de Pirey, bai Mot thu o phu du: Tan S, NNBCH. [BAVH., 1914], tap I,  ang Nh Tung dch, Bu Y hieu nh, Nxb. TH., 1997, tr. 224 234). Y o cua Delvaux bai viet lo ro: a) Mot ngi sang suot nh Nguyen Van Tng khong the cung quan iem sat ta nh Ton That Thuyet, ngi b chung cho la nong nay, vo bien; bi le chung khong the boi nho Nguyen Van Tng la t hoc c! ; b) Mot ngi a bnh Tay sat ta nh Nguyen Van Tng, trc o chung a xac quyet nh the, th khong the la ngi yeu nc thng dan c, ma phai boi nho ong la ngi va chong Phap, va phan dan hai nc; bi le chung buoc phai noi ngc  rang, giao dan theo Phap, chu Phap bao ho mi la yeu nc that s (sic!)! bai viet nay, Delvaux to ra thieu trung thc hn bai viet vao nam 1916 (bd., sd.).

-          Cai chet cua Nguyen Van Tng, cu phu chnh An Nam (NNBCH. [BAVH., 1923], tap X, Phan Xng dch, Nguyen Vy hieu nh, Nxb. TH., 2002, tr. 478 483). ay la mot bai viet co nhieu iem xuyen tac. Chung toi a lam ro phan chnh cua bai nghien cu cua chung toi. Tuy vay, trong bai viet nay, Delvaux a dan nguyen van oan trch t Cong bao thuoc a Tahiti, ra ngay 05.8.1886, tr. 202; giay khai t trch sao t so ho tch cua xa Papeete, so 60, ngay 30.7.1886; quyet nh cho phep di chuyen thi hai Nguyen Van Tng ve An Nam, k ngay 09.12.1886 (quyet nh a ang tren Cong bao thuoc a Tahiti cung ngay); ngoai ra, con co ten con tau la Le Bourayne, ten ch huy tau la Willemsens; ac biet la anh chup Nguyen Van Tng luc chet Delvaux viet mot cach thu han ve cai chet cua cu phu chnh An Nam Nguyen Van Tng! Sao linh muc han thu dai dang en vay, nhat la vi mot ngi a chet! Dau sao, cac van ban hanh chnh tren cung a phu chnh mot so ieu m at chnh Delvaux ang len tap ch BAVH., 1920 (nh Thanh Thai ra lenh quat xch sat len quan tai Nguyen Van Tng khi tau thuy mi ve en An Nam!!! 1887, Thanh Thai au a len ngoi! Ve sau, Thanh Thai a chng to ong khong phai la mot con ngi tam thng nh the!).

-          oi ieu xac minh ve mot thi ky bien ong cua lch s An Nam (BAVH., 1941, tr. 215 314, cha xuat ban ban dch).

[* ] Xem them: L. Sogny, Cac gia nh the gia vong toc nc Nam: ngai Nguyen Hu o, NNBCH. [BAVH., 1924], s., tr. 262 264 ay la bai viet ca ngi ten tay sai, ban nc Nguyen Hu o mot cach trang trn!

 

     (4). ong ch: mot danh t ch nhng ngi cung ch hng na sau the k XIX: trung quan, ai quoc, chu chien, chong Phap (bnh Tay sat ta), chong bon giac C quay roi va mu toan banh trng cua nha Thanh Trung Hoa, cha phai la khai niem ong ch theo l tng cong san chu ngha hien ai.

 

     (5). Xem them: NTL.CB., tap 32, Nxb. KHXH., 1975, tr. 355 356. ay la phng thc khong biet g:

            Bong c tin bao [] quan ta anh manh vao thanh, An Nghiep va 1 vien quan mot, 1 vien quan hai eu b giet chet, bon Hoac ao Sinh va quan tren tau thuyen ay eu ap tay tc gian, bao Van Tng rang: Viec khong xong c, phai bao ngay cho tng ay khong nen lau. Van Tng thay chung kh gian ng boc len, s l viec ln, mi thong tha noi rang: Viec Ha Noi, tng cua quy quoc bao khong phai la ban y, ma lay sc quan 4 tnh, nc toi cung khong cung tranh, the la hai ben eu khong trai. An Nghiep chet, hoac bi bon cp khac, hoac bi s dan noi gian, viec cha ro rang, can c vao au ma voi bao, huong chi tra lai thanh e sm nh ieu c, la lenh cua quy tng; lay lai thanh roi sau mi ngh hoa c la menh lenh cua vua nc toi; bon chung ta ch biet theo menh lenh ay. Con nh Ha Noi giet An Nghiep cung nh An Nghiep giet Nguyen Tri Phng, o la eu do s khong ng, cung khong phai la bon chung ta lam ra, nay cha tng than en cho ay, biet c viec ay, ma ch nghe tin bao khong au, chang nhng quy tng tnh xa khong the c, ma bon chung ta i lan nay that co phu, sao bang a th ngay cho Ha Noi lap tc phai tau thuy nho en, cho tien i en ni, neu c theo menh lenh trc hoi ban, rat tot, hoac c ro duyen do An Nghiep b chet, roi sau se bao, ha chang on hn ?. Hoac ao Sinh va quan tau ay nghe theo []. Van Tng lai bao rang: Tau cua quy quoc a tien vao lai voi ra, s dan nghe thay, tat bat chc viec Ha Noi a lam, th ai ngan cam c, s sau nay lai hai lam, th tra li tng cua quy quoc ra sao? Nay nen cho tau e Ta Di ra bien, on chan giac bien, con tau van i trc nen chay tien en Hai Phong, bon ta en ngay Hai Dng, trc giao tra thanh ay, hieu th niem yet cho s dan biet, e to ra thc tha va hoa thuan, roi sau tien en Ha Noi, giao tra het cac thanh va hoi duyen do ve viec An Nghiep, bao ca mot the, mi la ke hoan toan. Hoac ao Sinh thuan nghe.

      [An Nghiep: Francis Garnier; Hoac ao Sinh: Philastre].

 

     (6). Xem Y. Tsuboi, NNDVPVTH., sd., tr. 64 83. Cung sd., tr. 82, Tsuboi trch dan mot oan van cua chnh Puginier (qua E. Louvet, Cuoc i giam muc Puginier, Ha Noi, 1894, tr. 397): Neu khong co tha sai va giao dan, th ngi Phap khac nao nh nhng con cua a b be het cang. V du nh vay tuy moc mac song khong kem phan chnh xac va manh me. Thc the, neu khong co tha sai va giao dan, ngi Phap se ch co ch thu bao vay; ho se ch nhan c nhng tin tc sai nham a ti vi ac y, lam bai hoai tnh the cua ho: nh vay ho se b ay vao cai the khong hoat ong c g roi nhanh chong phai hng chu nhng tham hoa thc s. Ho se khong gi noi v tr ni ay, va se b buoc phai ri bo x nay

 

     (7).  Thu oan cua Phap la bao vay, co lap nc ta ve ngoai giao. Thang 8 al., 1881, Rheinart noi ro, ai y: Nc ay [nc Phap TXA. ct.]khong lan quyen nc ta, ch bat ta khong c giao thiep vi nc khac thoi. Ta neu khong nghe, nc ay cung bat lam cho c(NTL.CB., tap 35, Nxb. KHXH., 1975, tr. 59). C mat vien Thng bac nhan nh: Nc ay a mu, khong phai mot ngay.[] Ngan nga ta giao thong vi nc ngoai, la cho giao quyet cua nc ay. Duy trong c co mot ieu nc ta muon nh thng c vi nc nao eu c tuy tien th nc ay au co the trai li c c. Nhng ta t trc en gi cha giao thong vi cac nc, ma nc ay khong khoi gi ngam trong, nen 6, 7 nam nay, cac nc cha nc nao en nh thng c vi nc ta. Gan ay ta cung vi nc Y Pha Nho nh c, giao c vi nhau a lau, ma nc ay [nc Y Pha Nho TXA. ct.]cung cha co en, th tnh co ang ng, cung la tnh cua ta cha thong vi cac nc, cho nen nc ay [nc Phap TXA. ct.] mu lam t chuyen. Va lai giao thiep vi nc ngoai thc kho, ta ch s khch nc ay, long mu tnh ta, v o lai phat ra. Nay mu nc ay sap thanh, ta ha nen khong giai quyet sm, huong chi ta cung c ly ma lam, lam sang cho chung biet, co trai c g au, ma chung vin c e noi c [] Nhng t trc en gi thng b nc ay ngan tr, v ta khong co tau, ch ap tau vi nc ay, tuy theo nc ay i hay ng ma phai the. Nay xin sa soan tau cua ta, chon ngi trieu nh co long am ng cong viec lay 2, 3 ngi, lay c i tm hoc ve bac vat, nh nc Thanh cho ngi i hoc cac nc, t ro trc cho nc ay biet. en luc i th en nc ay trc, nhan chuyen i cac nc Y, Anh, Pho, My, khien cho cac nc biet ta t chu, nhan o ma thong suot tnh y. Tuc Thai Tay thch giao thiep chi bi vi nc xa, ta en, t khac khong nc nao khong nhan, tng cung co nc muon  giao thiep thong thng vi nc ta, thc khien cho tnh cua nc ta thong suot cac nc, th nc ay khong the t y lam can c. Neu nc ay co long nao bat c ta, ta cung co the cung cac nc ieu nh giup ban lai, tng cung la mot ke ay [] Lai viec nay con xa, nay gan ma co the giao thong c th Yen kinh, s cac nc eu ay, nhieu lan s bo ta sang Yen kinh cha biet ban en viec ay, v s the giao te khac nhau, cho nen kho lam. Nay co cuc chieu thng ch hang thue, do quan cuc ay gii thieu, tng cung la mot c hoi. Gan ay tiep c tin bao ng nh Canh thang nay cung en, xin do bon toi thng thuyet, nh vien ay ngo y vi Ly Hong Chng nh mat do y s cac nc Anh, My, Pho, e nam c cot yeu, thong thuyet giup cho. Con s Y Pha Nho ay, nc ay a nh c vi ta, th nen ban vi ho. Nc Thanh gan ay tranh nc Lu Cau vi nc Nhat Ban ma khong c [v co s can thiep cua tong thong My Grant TXA. ct.], nay nc ay [nc Thanh TXA. ct.][]tng cung noi giong [da vang TXA. ct.]vi ta cung lo [lo au ve cac nc thc dan da trang TXA. ct.], tat het long mu thc ma viec chong xong (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr.59 62).

      Thang 12 al., cuoi nam 1881 bc sang 1882,Vua cho la quan nc Thanh vao yet kien, s sinh ng. Ben cho Nguyen Van Tng ban kn vi ng nh Canh.[] Van Tng mat dan ng nh Canh 3 viec:

-          Nc ta at quan on on ch kinh o nc Thanh, neu co viec g, c to cao tong ly nha mon.

-          Quang ong, hien nghe lanh s cac nc phan nhieu ong ay [] Nc ta at 1 lanh s ay e tien i lai buon ban, thong bao tin tc, nhan cung giao du vi cac nc e thong hieu tnh y.

-          Nc ta muon phai ngi i khap cac nc nh cac nc Anh, Nga, Pho, Phap, My, Ao, Nhat Ban, xem xet va hoc [].

        Lai eu em o vat gi tang [] Tong oc ho Trng [Trng Thu Thanh TXA. ct.][]em o vat ay tra lai, noi rang nhan s nc Phap ng, co viec kho giang thuyet, tong oc ho Ly [Ly Hong Chng TXA. ct.] cung lay th va t khai a cho e to tnh cung khuyen ve y eu phai t cng (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 90 91).

        Thang 6 al., 1883, T c mat. en khi Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet thc s lanh ao at nc, Trieu nh Hue thc hien chu trng ngoai giao oi trong, trung lap gia 2 nc Phap, Hoa, v ca 2 nc nay eu mu toan xam lc va chia nhau Bac k! o la chien thuat toa sn quan ho au (ngoi tren nui xem 2 con cop xau xe nhau), ch c hoi gianh lai quyen t chu cho at nc.

        Nhng, tiec thay, 14.8 al., 1884, Ly Hong Chng Fournier k tam c Thien Tan, buoc ai Nam phai chap nhan cng c Patenotre! Nc Nga lai ng ra ieu nh e Phap Hoa chnh thc k hiep c Thien Tan (Patenotre Ly Hong Chng), vao ngay 27.4 At dau (1885) (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 127 va tr. 174)![Theo Viet Nam s lc, khi au viec moi gii cho tam c Fournier la do mot ngi c, ten Detring (sd., b. 1964, tr. 539 540)].

    

     (8). iem nay chung toi thay can noi ro them: cac ten oi lot linh muc, giam muc, mot mat, thoi phong con so, mat khac, quy tat ca bon Viet gian theo Phap vao nhan hieu giao dan, ong thi ton cac ten xam lc Phap la s gia cua Thien Chua! Do o, bnh Tay sat ta, khau hieu ay c hieu la anh dep giac Phap xam lc va tieu diet bon giao dan vi ngha tren va vi ngha choi bo truyen thong dan toc, e bao ve oc lap dan toc va ban sac van hoa dan toc Viet Nam cua chung ta.

      Ve t giao dan c Quoc s quan s dung trong phan viet ve cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi (22 23.5 al., 1885) va hai thang sau o: o la lc lng giao dan do thc dan Phap vu trang sung an; o la bon lnh ma ta (giao dan vo lai). Xin phan biet vi bo phan giao dan lng thien, khong theo ta ao, thc dan (xem them: GS. Tran Van Giau, He y thc phong kien va s that bai cua no , Nxb. TP.HCM., 1993, tr. 368 371).

       Mac du ve That thu kinh o khong phai la t lieu goc, ch la mot tac pham dan gian h cau vi nhieu sai lech ang ke, chung toi cung trch mot vai oan, ch e tham khao them:

o thanh, quan Quan giao hoa

La chieu hn thiet noi ma vi Tay

Tay phien ngam van gian thay:

em long c chien, con en ay lam g?

May ma Nam Viet buoi bai suy

Tay ma bai, ao phen ni, cung khong con

Ngi ma phieu lac nui non

Bao nhieu nha ca chang con g au

Tay phien thuc thu thu au

Hang lai Nam Viet, manh au chang lanh

Tay phien tr lai Tay thanh

ay xau tieng bia [beu?] danh a roi

Ho khong cho am nhanh moc choi

Tram dao xeo tht tha troi giang ha

Quan Quan khi ay noi qua

Noi cung ai Phap ch nha phien trao:

Quan mot cho en quan ba

Quan nam quan sau vay ma cung nghe!

oi trieu cac quan tnh tr ve

S tnh y c cho ra be uc trong

Tin th tin, da con phong

Nam trieu te tng no em long phuc binh.

         Van la van e bnh Tay sat ta.

         Chung van s Nam trieu te tng Nguyen Van Tng lam noi cong cho Ton That Thuyet.

         ( cuon K V phu chnh ai than Nguyen Van Tng, th Vai net ve con ngi, tam hon va t tng, chung toi a co dp bc au phan tch ve That thu kinh o vi mot vai net nhan then chot).

 

     (9). Chung toi xin chot lai va nhan manh iem nay: Co ieu, s hoc van phai phan tach ro h chieu va thc chieu : a). can c vao ba mi nam lam quan, mot niem trung quan ai quoc va kien nh lap trng chong Phap; b). can c vao hai thang sau ngay 23.5 At dau, 1885 vi hai mat du Ham Nghi t Tan S gi ve va tinh than au tranh khang khai, khong chu khuat phuc cua Nguyen Van Tng [gom ca y nh  lap ong Khanh bi khong con ai trong dien co the, NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 23]; c). can c vao hai ban ket an chung tham cua De Courcy, De Champeaux va Trieu nh ong Khanh [NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 247 va tap 37, sd., tr. 33, 35, 132 141]; d). can c vao ca t  lieu cua Puginier, H. Le Marchant de Trigon, A. Delvaux (1916) , cac t lieu cha cong bo cua Phap c trch dan bi Yoshiharu Tsuboi (NNDVPVTH.,  cong trnh c tai tr bi chnh phu Phap vi s giup cua mot so nha s hoc Phap [1982]; quan iem cua Tsuboi van la bao hoang, t san).

     Co y kien khac: a vua Ham Nghi ve nhng van tiep tuc can vng; Ham Nghi se lanh ao tong quat cuoc khang chien bang mat du; ch ao khang chien trc tiep ch can Ton That Thuyet, Phan nh Phung Bi le, mot nc co hai vua la qua tao bao! (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., cuoi tr. 244).

 

    (10). ao Doan ch (NTL.CB., tap 37, sd., tr. 79). Xem them ve nhan vat inh Hoi (NTL.CB., tap 37, sd., tr. 80, 142 [?], 244, 325): inh Hoi chong Phap, khong chong Trieu nh thi Nguyen Van Tng con gi v the.

 

    (11). ay la loai thong tin ban an. Trong cac loai thong tin, loai ban an, cao th, mat th, mat du hien nhien co o kha tn cao nhat. Cac loai thong tin nay c phoi kiem va kiem chng bang suot ca qua trnh hoat ong lau dai va ket thuc cuoc i nhan vat lch s Nguyen Van Tng (b lu ay va chet chon lu ay biet x). k e t, e ngu ( cac tap 27 36), nhng van kien tren la hoan toan xac tn. Rieng k e luc (2 tap 37 38), ngoai tr ban an ve bon nhan vat chu chot [*] trong nhom chu chien a c xac nh o kha tn tuyet oi, th so van kien lien quan con lai, can phai ai loc (chung toi a thc hien bai viet).

     Nam 1890, Trng Quang an co dang s chay toi, keu oancho Trng Van e, do quyen li chnh tr thi b bao ho!? Ch co mot trng hp nh vay (xem ai Nam liet truyen, tap 3, sd., tr. 425 426). Ngi viet ngh  rang, ngoai viec cung chu trng cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi (05.7.1885), Trng Van e con c trao nhiem vu can hau va anh lac hng cac cuoc truy kch vua Ham Nghi ma thc dan Phap co quyet tien hanh. Rieng chi tiet (can hau, anh lac hng) nay, va vai tro tng t cua inh T Lng, can c nghien cu, xac minh them, mac du chung toi nhan thay a co u d kien trong NTL.CB., tap 36, tr. 223, 229, 234, 243.

[*] Pham Than Duat hoa ra ch la mot nhan vat rat m nhat, khong co ten trong ban an chung tham nay.

 

     (12). Nguyen Van Tng, thng th, sau nay la phu chanh, Van Minh, sau [na la] Can Chanh, Ky-vi-ba, phu trach oi ngoai, b ay vao nam 1885 Tahiti va mat tai o [b chu cua H. Le Marchant de Trigon; nhng ch trong dau moc vuong [ ] la cua chung toi ngi viet va chu thch  chua them (TXA. ct.); xin lu y them: 29.8.1875 (mot ngan tam tram bay mi lam)].

      Trch t: H. Le Marchant de Trigon, bai V ai bien au tien cua nen bao ho en Hue [viet ve Rheinart], Nhng ngi ban co o Hue ( BAVH., 1917 ), Nxb. Thuan Hoa, 1998, tap IV, sd., tr. 273).

 

     (13). Ve Ton That Thuyet, ten ong hau nh luon luon gan lien vi danh tnh Nguyen Van Tng, hoac c goi chung la hai ngi trong NTL.CB., tap 35 tap 37, Nxb. KHXH., 1976 1977, chng to s nhat dang cao. Tuy nhien, trc o cung co lan Ton That Thuyet mac mu boi nho, nham triet ha, ap tan tanh uy tn Nguyen Van Tng cua De Champeaux:

       Thng th bo ho la Nguyen Van Tng v b li giem (nguyen hiep oc la Ton That Thuyet tau ngh ve viec tien ong d dang co noi: Thuyen nc khac mang en, het long xin giup; lai noi: Cung ngi chia li, mot nc hai dan, lai kinh o on ram la Nguyen Van Tng nhan nhieu cua lot, tau xin bo cam) xin tra viec bo ho, oi sung bo khac.

      Vua du rang: Thuyet t hoc khong thong, lai co tat nong nay, noi can, sao ang ke; li on kinh o cung khong can c; ngi xa khong the dep c li giem, cho nen noi: Cu ret khong g bang mac hai lan ao cu, dep li giem khong g bang t phai tu tnh. Nguyen Van Tng t luc gi viec bo ho en gi, co phan het long tru tnh, thue khoa cua nc co hn len; ng luc phai gi a ve quan nhu ban ron, eu c on thoa ca. Tram ng trach uy cho lam co thanh hieu sao nen t ay em thoai thac (NTL .CB., tap 34, Nxb. KHXH., 1976, tr. 370: thang 9 al., 1880).

     S nc Phap nghe noi tnh Quang Nam co mo than, (khach buon lanh trng), yeu cau xin en kham; cha cho, s ay lai thac ra viec mat a thang len vua, ngam giem quan vien bac ai than, (trong th noi: Co ngi bat trung, bat cong en noi ng nc ay co y g khac, lay nhieu cua lot gia n cua ngi nc Thanh; lai noi: Ngi cho lai buon nc Thanh khai mo ay ch mu li cho  mnh, khong lam li cho nha nc), quan vien bac xin a th cho chu suy Phap va sao bc th cua s ay ghim vao gi i, e cho biet s ay co s khong phai, e khoi nghe mot be ve sau.

      Vua bao rang: Nay neu em li noi khong phai cua han, voi viet th cho chu suy cua han, khong khoi benh nhau bo i, ch g en ta; the la eu khong nhn s gian nho, e l viec ln, khong phai la kheo x. Nen mat t t au cuoi viec ay giao cho Nguyen Thanh Y theo the noi cho chu suy han biet (NTL.CB., tap 34, sd., tr. 341: thang 4 al., 1880).

       o la mot bieu hien cua cuoc chien tranh tren mat tran kinh te (ngoai thng, tai chnh).

       Sau lan hieu lam v mac mu De Champeaux ay, hai ngi luon luon oan ket vi nhau, cho en luc Nguyen Van Tng b lu ay sang Tahiti, Ton That Thuyet sang Trung Hoa

   

     (14). Viec lap ong Khanh la chang ang ng, trai vi di chuc cua T c. Di chuc a ghi ro: ng K ngi yeu hay om, co tam tat, cha hoc thong ma kieu ngao, hay bi viec rieng cua ngi khac cho lam thang, eu khong phai la t chat thuan lng, theo li phai; s bon ngi kho lay li noi can c (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 200 201). Lam thang la vi pham tnh trung trc, hay be cong s that! Mot tac gia thc dan Phap a viet: Cha he x s nao, thi nao co ong vua b than dan oan ghet nh vua bu nhn ong Khanh (Charles Gosselin, LEmpire dAnnam, Paris, 1904, tr. 267; dan theo Dng Kinh Quoc, Phan Canh, ao c Chng, Quynh C, o c Hung).

      Vi bai Giai trieu, Nguyen Van Tng khang nh long mnh ch hng en vua Ham Nghi.

      

     (15). Xem them cac bai viet cua thc dan Phap (xin oc vi cach oc theo quan iem yeu nc, dan toc cua chung ta va cong l chan chnh, tien bo cua nhan loai):

-          A. Laborde, Tnh Quang Tr, NNBCH. [BAVH., 1921], tap VIII, Phan Xng dch, Nh Xuyen hieu nh, Nxb. TH., 2001, tr. 196, 200 (xem lai chu thch (3)).

-          H. Cosserat, Ngi ta viet s nh the nao: on tiep ai ta Guerrier tai Trieu nh nc Nam ngay 17.8.1884, NNBCH. [BAVH., 1924], tap XI, sd., tr. 373 397. Trch bai viet nay:

       ung phap luat ma noi, th ong Tng ra khoi kinh thanh la e trnh dien trc toa an binh []; neu khon ngoan hn, th ta khong nen e mot con ngi [ch Nguyen Van Tng TXA. ct.] ro rang la ke thu cua chung ta cam Trieu nh, mot con ngi luon a va se chong pha nen o ho cua chung ta theo cach nay hay cach khac, khong chu chap nhan no.

       Nhng chung ta a tin, a lam bo tin s thanh that trong nhng li phan oi cua ong ta [ve cac bien ong trong Trieu nh TXA. ct. theo mach van cua ten thc dan xac xc Cosserat], va a chap thuan nhng li khon kheo cua ong ta nh la bang chng cua y ngh tot. [].

       Thay v Kien Phuc th nay la Me Tru [Ham Nghi TXA. ct.], va luon van la Nguyen Van Tng tr v.

       That s, t nay [] quan phu chnh [Nguyen Van Tng TXA. ct.] khong the tha ho bay mu tnh ke e chong lai chung ta [].

       Tng De Courcy, theo li cua Huart, chieu 3.7 mi biet c ket qua tieu cc cua cac s thng thao vi Trieu nh ve viec on tiep ong, va ngi ta a e at ti ong cac li bao cao chang co tnh cach g lam du bt s non nong cua ong, hoac lam cho ong co thien cam vi ngi nc Nam.

       Con ngi hon me [ch Nguyen Van Tng TXA. ct.] co y chang lam cho tng tong ch huy [ch De Courcy TXA. ct.] co c ieu g kha hn la nhng ieu ma con ngi ay a lam cho cac kham s khac []. (bd., sd., tr. 380 382).

       Noi chung , ieu chung toi thay can nhan manh la, thai o thu ban, ch ta cua cac ten thc dan, tay sai, ke ca co ao mang ban chat xam lc, the hien rat ro trong cac bai viet cua chung, tren NNBCH. (BAVH.) suot ba mi nam an hanh (1914 1944), tren sach bao xuat ban tai Phap trc ay. Chung khong tiec li ca ngi bon tay sai nh Tran Tien Thanh, Nguyen Hu o, Nguyen Than, Cao Xuan Duc Chung cung e cao ang ke ngi a that s au hang chung, ra quan anh dep phong trao Can vng nh Hoang Ta Viem [*]. Va tat nhien chung tm u moi cach e triet ha uy tn nhng ngi chong Phap, chong ta ao en cung nh Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet Van e la thai o thu ch, cam han cua chung oi vi Nguyen Van Tng, con lng thong tin trong cac bai viet ay ve ong, chung toi phai phoi kiem (khong the nhe da, ca tin en ngay th va phi khoa hoc nh  mot so ngi c goi la nha van, nha s hoc). Chung toi nghien cu nhng bai viet ay trong s lu y vi tinh than canh giac o, va lay NTL.CB. IV, V (1847 1883; 1883 - 1885), ac biet la cac t lieu goc ( CHAU BAN ) c trch dan, gom quoc th, du, mat du, tau, s, ban an (va ca ban an cao th cua De Courcy, De Champeaux) lam chuan c, ong thi tham khao, phoi kiem, ai loc them NTL.CB.VI (1885 1888).

[*]Theo NTL.CB, tap 37, sd., tr. 200 203, 305: Hoang Ta Viem anh e yen dan, khong phai anh lay thang. o la quan iem yen dan trong no le cua nguy trieu ong Khanh!

 

                                        (Chu thch cua tac gia bai viet: Tran Xuan An).

     Bai viet a c bo sung them mot so t lieu va luan c.

 

  Thanh pho Ho Ch Minh, ngay 27.4.2002, tac gia t xep ch lai tren may vi tnh tai nha e k niem 117 nam Ngay Kinh o quat khi (1885 2002); 27 nam Ngay Giai phong Mien Nam, thong nhat at nc, cham dt cuoc chien tranh chong ngoai xam suot 117 nam (1858 1975); 13 nam Hoa bnh sau cuoc chien tranh chong chu ngha banh trng ai Han Bac Kinh KhMer o (1975 1989).

 

 

 

TRAN XUAN AN

 

BI KCH IEM NH

MAU THUAN: 1883 1884

 

     au phai ch hai thang sau em Kinh o Quat Khi (22 23.5 At dau: 04 05.7.1885), van e chon la hanh ong chnh tr tao bao, sang suot, v so phan nhan dan va van nc, t lau a c tnh huong lch s at ra mot cach het sc gay gat, gay gat nhat la t luc T c bang ha (ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien, tap 35, Nxb. KHXH., 1975, tr. 198, 207, 231), tc la van nan a nay sinh hn hai mi nam trc o (t 1858), ac biet la t thang 7.1883 (thang 6, Quy mui).

     Can phai thay ro t tng chu chien Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet va bao s phu khac trong quan he bien chng vi tng chuyen bien thi cuoc, tng quyet sach cua T c, tng thu oan cua Phap, s quay roi cua bon ph Tau. Co nhng luc phai nhan nai, giau long, tham lang nung nau y ch khang chien!

     Nhng thi iem cang thang nhat, sau vu Henry Riviere (1882), Phap anh chiem Bac k, chuan b am mu uy hiep kinh o Hue, T c lai mat, lai e di chieu truyen ngoi cho Duc c, dau di chieu vi net ch thng va ch son o chau phe cua T c a ghi ro: mat hi co tat, giau kn [th nhn TXA. chua them (ct.)] khong ro rang, s sau khong sang; tnh lai hieu dam, cung rat la khong tot; cha chac ng noi viec ln. Nhng nc can co vua nhieu tuoi; ng luc kho khan nay, khong dung han th dung ai? (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 199)! cac trang khac cua NTL.CB., lai ghi ro la mat co tat, co le nham khong kn, co kha nang mu (xem them: Yoshiharu Tsuboi, Nc ai Nam oi dien vi Phap va Trung Hoa , UB. KHXH. Thanh uy TP. HCM. xb., 1990, tr. 302; NTL. CB., tap 32, Nxb. KHXH.,1975, tr. 133).

     Di chieu phan anh u t cua T c ve v vua ke nhiem, ve tien o at nc. T c a sap xep ba v phu chanh ai than, cho phep nghiem sac mat ng Trieu nh, [vi s TXA. ct.] gi mnh ng an e giup vua, oc thuc quan thuoc (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 200).

     ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien, ghi rat ro ve Duc c:

     Duc c len ngoi, mac du cha tuyen oc di chieu lai tao phe canh rieng (ra vao cung ien, bon tay chan ay lai c cap che bai (the bai vua ban) e eo); lai be tre ca viec phe duyet cac t tau khan cap cua cac quan th;  con vi pham ca quy che le tang (mac ao sac luc), tnh ngay chuyen trang sc ngay khi T c mi c kham liem! (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 206). ieu ay t trc T c a  can dan neu the, phai t hnh; co van ban cat vao hom sat (NTL.CB, sd., tap 32, tr. 102; tap 33, Nxb. KHXH., 1975, tr. 130 va 350).

      Theo Delvaux, Nhng ngi ban co o Hue (BAVH., so 1, 1941): trong nhom ngi c tuy tien ra vao cung cam ay, co ca linh muc Th (Nguyen Hu C, trc la tham ta Thng chanh Hai Dng), nhieu lan sang Phap, Tay Ban Nha. Y co kha nang la noi gian cua Phap. Duc c lai dung y lam th k rieng!

      Duc c con muon cat di chieu, v ngh trong t di chieu ran bao co nhng cau khong tot, khong the truyen ba cho moi ngi nghe; trieu cac phu chnh ai than, can bt mot oan ay i, khong tuyen luc ra. Tran Tien Thanh bao the cung on, hai ngi [Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet TXA. ct.] eu tha rang: Xin nha vua quyet nh (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 207).

      Trc o, Tran Tien Thanh, Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet a cung nhau viet s xin vua T c cat bo oan ay, nhng T c khong ong y. en luc T c mat, s the khong the khac c na. Va lai, ban tnh va chnh kien cua Duc c a boc lo rat ang phan nan!

      Van Tng bao kn Thuyet rang: Tien e a bao vua noi ngoi cha chac ng noi viec ln, lai giao cho ngoi ln. Nay bat au, a c ong nh the, huong chi la sau nay ? o la viec lo rieng cho chung ta. Thuyet von tnh cng trc lai cay quyen cam quan lien mat ap rang: C nh li chieu th mu tnh la v xa tac, bat ac d ma lam viec nho nh Y Doan, Hoac Quang [phe lap TXA. ct.], cung la ch cua tien e;  nhan the cung y mu bo [phe Duc c TXA. ct.] i (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 206).

      Ton That Thuyet a qua sau sac, hieu ro an y cua T  c: phe Duc c, cung la ch cua tien e, v xa tac. Trong lch s, co bao ten vua hoang dam en noi tan nat c o, nc mat, dan no le ngoai bang; ai cung co the biet mot so ien hnh dam o nh the. Hn na, s s khong ng noi viec ln v thoi hieu dam, v s sau khong sang la mot oan chac, mac du cha khang quyet, cua chnh T c! Do o, phe Duc c la mot chuyen tat yeu, neu tai v cung khong co uy tn v thoi hieu dam la rat kho cha va kho giau, au phai cat hay khong cat di chieu (mac du o la toi ai hnh toi ta che th), va v nguy c a thay trc: Tng Dc Lam sao nghiem sac mat vi vua tren ngai vang! Phai chang T c a au hang ? Phai chang T c muon thanh minh cho mnh vu phe Hong Bao (mot mac cam sau xa va ray rt khon nguoi trong T c)?

      Xa tac, quan, dan, thuc trong khinh? con la t tng, rat co ien va rat truyen thong, a soi sang cho Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet cung nhom chu chien Trieu nh Hue i en quyet nh truat phe Duc c (giam long hn mot nam, en thi Ham Nghi len ngoi mi ra lenh thi hanh an), (xem NTL.CB., tap 36, Nxb. KH XH., 1976, tr. 172 173 va Hanh Thuc ca, Nxb. Tan Viet, 1950 [?], tr. 33 34).

      Khong nhng Duc c a b Phap mua chuoc, ban than h hong, ma Hiep Hoa cung la ke cam tam au hang, am mu cung Tran Tien Thanh, cau ket cung De Champeaux va theo lenh y! Hiep Hoa a dung ke li gian, hong ay Ton That Thuyet va Nguyen Van Tng i en cho hai v phu chnh nay giet nhau! Nhng, vi s oan ket mot long, ho a pha v am mu cua Hiep Hoa, ma ang sau Hiep Hoa la Tran Tien Thanh, Tuy L vng, De Champeaux a the, nhng ke ay lai nh mu sat Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet! (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 255 260; ien tn bao cao cua phu suy Phap gi Bo Hai ngoai Phap, xem : Tran Th Thanh Thanh, Nhn lai viec phe lap Hue nam Quy mui (1883), K yeu Hoi ngh khoa hoc lch s, HSP. TP.HCM., 20.6.1996, sd., tr. 34 [trch nguyen van, xin xem ghi chu bo sung cuoi bai (1)]. Tran Tien Thanh la ke ma Hong Tap va s phu Van than ket an t hnh, ke c giao nhiem vu thng lng vi nc Phap va b lien luy do s cham lo cho quyen li nc Phap (ng Trnh, Nhng ngi ban co o Hue [BAVH., 1919], Nxb. TH., 1998, tap IV B, tr. 406). Tuy L vng Mien Trinh cung mot giuoc vi Hiep Hoa, Tran Tien Thanh!

     Va cai chet Kien Phuc, chnh la do Hong Hu hoac Duc c gay ra (2). Trc het, chnh Kien Phuc chet v tham vong tr lai ngoi vua cua Duc c. Phap a mm y cho Vu th (hoang hau cua T c, me nuoi cua Duc c, e Vu th truyen lai noi dung mm y ay cho Duc c), tai Khiem Lang! (?). Du vay, NTL.CB. chep ve viec nay kha m ho: Cong [kham ? TXA. ct.] s Phap en thang ngoai ca Khiem cung chi xem. Ngi ong ay va quan suat khong bao ban ngan can c (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 243; tap 36, sd., tr. 69; Tran Trong Kim, Viet Nam s lc, Nxb. VHTT., b. 1999, tr. 594 ).

      Hn na, Phap chi mot luc hai con bai chu: khong ch Duc c, ma ca Hong Hu! Chung nh a len ngoi mot ong vua loan luan co qua tang, than Phap, tiet lo quan quoc trong s, thc hien am mu thc dan cua chung (NTL.CB., tap 37, Nxb. KHXH., 1977, tr. 61 62 va ai Nam liet truyen, tap 3, Nxb. TH., 1993, tr. 163, tr. 203). Trc trieu than, Ton That Thuyet a noi ro am mu cua thc dan Phap:

      S cu Phap la Le-na [Rheinart TXA. ct.] uy cho k luc Hinh ti dinh bon toi noi: Neu ton Gia Hng vng [Hong Hu TXA. ct.] len lam vua th y thuan nghe, bang khong the th y gay chuyen. [] Viec Hong Hu [khong c len ngoi vua TXA. ct.] co ngi khong bang long (am ch vao Le-na), a tin giem pha [Trieu nh TXA. ct.] a nhieu (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 176 177; Hanh Thuc ca, sd., tr. 30 34). Xin trch lai nguyen van  Hanh Thuc ca cua Nguyen Nhc th Bch , tr. 33 (NLT., tap 3, sd., tr. 77 78 : tieu s NNTB.):

           a yen viec noi Tay kia

           Bay gi may ke hiem nghi lo tr.

      Tat nhien Nguyen Nhc th Bch thng hai, benh vc Duc c, phe phan Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet (3), theo cach cam ngh cua mot ngi va bao hoang hi mu quang, va chu hoa; tham ch t nhieu ai ngai benh vc ca Hong Hu, mac du khong khang an hay cai chnh g ve vu loan luan gia Hong Hu va cong chua ong Xuan (sau b oi la Phuc Le, vi ngha la phai tuan theo le giao)! Chung toi ch trch dan e chng minh rang: Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, Ton nhan phu, nh than cuoi cung phai ra lenh thi hanh an, bi ng rang, chnh Duc c hoac Hong Hu, mot trong hai, a ngam giet Kien Phuc hong chiem ngoi vua theo ung y o cua thc dan Phap. Cai ng, noi theo cach noi cua Nguyen Nhc th Bch, lai ung s that! (4)

      Bi kch cung nh am mau va thuoc oc nay la iem nh cua mau thuan oi khang gia lc lng thc dan Phap, ta ao (5), bon hoang than than Phap, vi lc lng yeu nc, chu chien cua Ham Nghi, Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, Trng Van e, Ong ch Khiem (5), Pham Than Duat, Tran Xuan Soan, Ton That Phan

     ng tren lap trng dan chu va yeu nc, di anh sang khoa hoc lch s, can nhn lai bi kch ay.

     Bi kch am mau cung nh nha Nguyen (noi u hn, con am thuoc oc, s boi nho, vu khong vi tham vong, toi loi co that cua Duc c, Hiep Hoa, Tran Tien Thanh, Hong Hu cung s ban nc, au hang cua nhng ke o; va oan khuat cua nhng con ngi yeu nc, co nhan cach cao ep, trung thanh vi trieu Nguyen mot cach sang suot nh Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, Pham Than Duat) thc chat do thc dan Phap, do bon oi lot Thien Chua giao gay ra; cu the nh a noi, la chung mua chuoc, nam lay Duc c, Hiep Hoa, Hong Hu, Tran Tien Thanh nham ay dan toc ta vao vc tham mat nc, bien trieu Nguyen thanh lu roi bu nhn, tay sai  (ong Khanh, Khai nh, Bao ai).

      Ngay di che o thc dan thong tr, Tran Trong Kim a viet ve nh than nguy trieu ong Khanh: Nhieu ngi a biet theo chnh sach bao ho cho nen moi viec trong trieu eu c yen on (VNSL., b. 1964, tr. 554 555). Trieu nh ch co the yen on trong no le!!! He con ngi chong Phap nh Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, th van con mau thuan oi khang trong Trieu nh, do thc dan, ta ao gay ra vi sc ep, s mua chuoc cua chung oi vi canh chu hoa (au hang that s), nh a phan tch!

     o con la bi kch thuoc ve ban chat che o quan chu phong kien, trong viec truyen ngoi, tranh gianh ngai vang trong e he, bat chap so phan nhan dan va van nc! Loai bi kch nay au phai ch dien ra di trieu Nguyen, ma suot cac trieu ai phong kien nc ta va tren the gii!

     Va lai, o con la bi kch thi chien: quyet an trong tnh trang khan cap (ngay thi dan chu cung co quyen ban bo ve tnh trang khan cap, khong chap nhan oi lap chnh kien).

     Dan vi quy, xa tac th chi, quan vi khinh (Manh T). To quoc, vua, dan, au nang hn?. Hoi la e khang nh cau tra li a rat nghn xa va mai con mi (4). Long trung cua Nguyen Van Tng va nhom chu chien Trieu nh Hue kien quyet chong giac Phap va bon  phan quoc a lam sang choi ch trung chan chnh, rat co ien va rat truyen thong.

      Nguyen Van Tng va nhom chu chien a chon la ung trong bi kch nh iem mau thuan oi khang. Ho cung a tra li ung cau hoi: Xa tac, quan, dan, thuc trong khinh?, trong s phan cong cho em Kinh o Quat Khi va trong viec giao nhiem vu sau em lch s 22 23.5 At dau (ch t 05.7.1885 en 06.9.1885! Tiec thay!).

      Moi viec gay ra nhieu loan t lieu e nham tao ra nghi van lch s ve Nguyen Van Tng va ve Ton That Thuyet, nh a dua theo luan ieu trong cao th boi nho cua ten thc dan kham s Hector, ong Khanh, Nguyen Hu o, Phan Liem, Pham Phu Lam chang han, eu xuc pham en le cong bang, long yeu chuong tnh khoa hoc nghiem minh cua s hoc, quyet tam bao ve s that lch s va cong l.

      Chang le ch hn mot tram nam sau, hau the quen mat phan ng cua s phu va nhan dan trc li cao th o, nh Pham Phu Lam, Phan Liem a tra vi gia a vay, mac du Pham Phu Lam t nhieu to ra co lng tri ? (NTL.CB., tap 37, sd., tr. 197, 222; tap 38, Nxb. KHXH.,1978, tr. 12 -13).

     Va lai, c e ton tai tnh trang ay la vo hnh trung hay co y ri vao luan ieu xuyen tac cua giac Phap, bon ta ao, bon chu hoa, bon ai Han banh trng chu ngha, lan nhng ke yeu nc nhiet thanh tuy thien can hoac mac mu tuyen truyen boi nho cua chung (7)!

                                                    

                                                                

                                                                

TRAN XUAN AN

 

 

       (1). ien tn cua thong oc Nam k gi bo trng Bo Hai ngoai Phap ngay 10.12.1883:

       Hiep Hoa bay to trong moi luc cam tnh cua ong ta oi vi Phap. Y a b mat phai chu la Tuy L vng en Toa Kham s Phap e hoi De Champeaux la neu trong trng hp tai bien, y co c giup khong. Champeaux tra li ong y va nhiet thanh khuyen khch y chong lai can than. Cuoc vieng tham nay lam Trieu nh lo ngai, ho lam u ieu e biet noi dung cau chuyen nhng vo ch.

      (Th kho Bo Hai ngoai Phap, k hieu A.30 (58), hop 16; dan lai theo Cao Huy Thuan, ao Thien Chua va chu ngha thc dan Phap tai Viet Nam (1857 1914), luan an tien s quoc gia, khoa chnh tr hoc, ai hoc Paris, ban dch tieng Viet, tr. 318).

 

       (2).  NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 150 151 xac nh ro: Kien Phuc chet v benh. Trc o, nha vua von b benh, va tuy a bnh phuc nhng cha c nh cu (van chu le chau mng, ban thng cho quan than), Kien Phuc lai b benh tai phat rat nguy kch, dan en t vong. Tuy nhien, theo li Mien Tr to cao s cau ket cua Hong Hu vi Phap (va ca toi loan luan co qua tang cua Hong Hu), ban s cua Ton That Thuyet (Rheinart nang nac oi lap Hong Hu lam vua), ngh x cua Ton nhan phu, nh than (NTL.CB., tr. 176 178), ngi ta co the thay lo gch (logique) cua s viec nh chung toi a trnh bay.

 

       (3). Tran Trong Kim nhan nh ve tac gia Hanh Thuc ca: Ba Le tan Nguyen Nhc th  [Bch] co the biet ung s thc theo cai quan iem cua ngi mnh bay gi [!](HTC., li ta Tran Trong Kim, sd., tr. X). Nhan nh  ay, phai noi la sau sac: nhan thc s that lch s theo lang knh rieng va lang knh thi ai phong kien. Vi Tran Trong Kim, o la quan iem (: lang knh) bao hoang. Ong ta cung trnh bay ro, ban HTC. ong tm c a b chep lai va chep sai nhieu cho. Trong li ta va phan chu thch, Tran Trong Kim b sc ep lo lieu hoac ngam ngam cua cng quyen thc dan, nen anh phai co tnh xuyen tac them. V the, t nhieu a ri vao muc ch ap tan tanh uy tn Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, theo y o cua thc dan Phap, ta ao. Do o, tr i may cho ay, con lai, nhng oan HTC. khang nh net tch cc (yeu nc, chong Phap en cung ) cua Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet lai tr thanh vo cung gia tr, at mc xac tn cao. Va cung vi mc xac tn cao nh vay, oan HTC. viet ve am mu cua Rheinart va Hong Hu trong cai chet cua Kien Phuc (HTC., sd., tr. 31 34). Xin xem k  NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 176 177.

       Can noi them: Tran Trong Kim t nhieu co tinh than dan toc, chong Phap. Trong thi b Phap o ho, ong ta ch la mot nha giao, hoc gia. en thi phat xt Nhat xam lc, Tran Trong Kim mi b mi lam thu tng!

 

       (4). Noi theo ong Nguyen Xuan Que ong Que cung nghe cha ong noi lai , o la hai cau chu thch, bi  xa tac a bao gom dan, con quan hay quan vng, co khi ong nhat vi dan, vi  nc (xa tac), nh Ham Nghi, co khi la tai hoa, la noi nhuc cua To quoc, cua dan toc, nh Duc c, Hiep Hoa. Duc c, Hiep Hoa con la tai hoa, noi nhuc cua ca vng trieu nha Nguyen na. Truat phe, thi hanh an hai ten vua vo loai ay, va ca Hong Hu, la lam sang ep luat phap nghiem minh, bat v than cua trieu Nguyen va gop phan lam ben vng trieu Nguyen bay gi (trc 06.9.1885), e cu nc, cu dan.

 

       (5). Trong tinh than oan ket dan toc nhng van bao am tnh khach quan s hoc, vi y thc ton trong s that lch s, chung toi a khu biet ro oi tng can phe phan thng c goi la bo phan ta ao trong Thien Chua giao. o la cac giam muc, linh muc mang ban chat thc dan, hoac thc dan oi lot tu s Thien Chua giao (xin phan biet vi bo phan lng thien, chan tu, khong he dnh lu en chnh tr, thc dan, ma ch b li dung niem tin ton giao ). Ve Thien Chua giao Viet Nam, nhan nh cua cac giao s nh Tran Van Giau, Yoshiharu Tsuboi, Tran Ngoc Them, linh muc vien s Tran Tam Tnh a rat xac ang cac cuon sach a xuat ban. ac biet, Chnh phu Phap va mot so nha s hoc Phap a cong bo t lieu goc cua Phap qua cong trnh cua Tsuboi (1982). Giao hoang Jean-Paul II cung a bay to s thong hoi chung trong buoi le ngay 12.3.2000 va qua Xin gii thuyet ro noi dung cu the lch s cua t ta ao nh vay.

 

       (6). Ve ban an Ong ch Khiem, do Bo Hnh tuyen an, vi cac toi hnh cong vu, thng s (tuy tien bat lnh kinh o ho tong; chiem at cua dan e xay nha rieng) ong a pham va mc an (b cach chc, phat lu sung quan) ong phai chu, mot cach rat cu the, xin xem NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 163 164. Ngoai ra, Ong ch Khiem con pham toi khi quan, mot toi khong the tha th, di che o phong kien, neu giai thoai tat ca eu la cho ung vi s that. Tuy nhien, chung toi van rat de dat vi cac th giai thoai, ho ve thi thc dan, ta ao oc quyen tuyen truyen (phai ai loc cac lng thong tin cac sang tac dan gian h cau t lch s, ai loc tren c s cac van ban, van kien goc a c trch dan trong t lieu chuan c la NTL.CB. IV, V).

 

       (7).  Nhan ay, xin ban them mot kha canh, ay la van e l luan trong lnh vc van hoc dan gian:  sang tac va tiep nhan (ke ve, nghe ve, va chep ve, oc ve). 

        oi vi cac tac pham van hoc dan gian noi chung, khong the khong lu y mot ieu rat s ang la can van dung luan iem nghien cu xa hoi: co bo phan dan gian tien bo, sang suot; co bo phan quan chung lac hau, phan ong, mu quang; co bo phan nhan dan trung gian, ng gia hai bo phan kia. Khong bao gi co mot thc the xa hoi thuan nhat;va s phan hoa xa hoi cang ro trong nhng thi oan xuat hien nhng mau thuan gay gat vi nhng lc lng oi khang quyet liet. Va thc the dan gian (ca tang lp thng lu, tr thc cung the) lai cang phc tap theo hng tieu cc (lan lon tot xau, chnh ngha phi ngha, dan toc phan dan toc), mot khi mau thuan oi khang trong xa hoi, gia lc lng yeu nc va giac ngoai xam (xet ca ve mau thuan oi khang van hoa, ton giao) b ay en ben kia iem nh (cao trao cua kch tnh mot thuat ng van hoc), va cuoi cung lc lng xam lc, phan quoc, ngu dan thang the. Do o, trong mot tac pham van hoc dan gian nh ve That thu kinh o chang han, co nhng yeu to m ho, lan lon, nhap nhang trong nhan thc va phan anh lch s, dan en thai o, tnh cam cung thieu sang suot Ve That thu kinh o xuat hien t 1900 1914, sm nhat la 15 nam sau iem nh la em 22 23.5 At dau, 1885. o la ieu rat ang lu y.

       Cung xin khang nh ro rang hn: Chung toi khong van dung khai niem m hoc ve bi kch e phan tch noi dung tac pham ve That thu kinh o, von phan anh sai lech kha nhieu ve s kien, nhan vat lch s, ma ch e giai thch hien thc lch s, va cu the la tac ong cua bao quyen thc dan trong viec gay nhieu, lam sc ep len d luan mot bo phan quan chung lan sang tac cua bo phan quan chung o, t ra la suot 15 nam sau khi nhan dan ta hoan toan b thc dan thong tr. Cung rat can phai co cai nhn bien chng ve tam l cac phan so quan chung (qua trnh tac ong qua lai gia cac yeu to, bo phan ), ve tam l sang tao van hoc va truyen khau van hoc dan gian (mau thuan trong nhan thc, nhng iem mu trong nhan quan trc hien thc, s cng bc cua hien thc mot cach vo thc va hu thc, s mac mu tuyen truyen xen lan phan ng chong lai tuyen truyen  ).

       Cho nen, van e at ra la ch co the ai loc nhng lng thong tin xet thay la xac thc ma thoi, tren c s lay NTL.CB. IV, V (1847 06.9. 1885) lam chuan c. Xin xem them: K V phu chnh ai than Nguyen Van Tng, th Vai net ve con ngi, tam hon va t tng (TXA. bien soan ).

 

                                       (Chu thch cua tac gia bai viet: Tran Xuan An).

 

 

Xem tiep tep 2