Tiep theo tep 1

 

TRAN XUAN AN

 

VE MOT VAI TRANG

AO NGC S THAT LCH S

V MUC CH TUYEN TRUYEN

TRONG VIET NAM VONG QUOC S

 

    Ve mat tnh cam s hoc, ay la ca mot noi au long va ang phien trach. Tuy nhien, e tra lai s cong bang cho lch s, tren tinh than khoa hoc khach quan, chung ta khong nen tranh ne. Vet thng s hoc can c hoi chan va phau thuat tap the.

     Bai viet nay ch la mot e xuat.

     Vi s gii han van e, chung toi manh dan tam uc ket khuynh hng, chu trng chnh tr cua Phan Boi Chau giai oan thanh lap va hoat ong trong Duy tan hoi, Quang phuc hoi. Qua o, chung toi cung muon ch ro can nguyen, ong c cua cu Phan va Lng Khai Sieu trong viec xuyen tac bang cach ao ngc s that lch s ve Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, T Du. ay, cha noi en viec Phan Boi Chau va co iem ung, va co cho sai khi ong thi a kch tnh trang e nen dan quyen thi T c, a kch Phan Thanh Gian, Lam Duy Thiep m loi cho giac en [NTPCPBC. (1), Viet Nam vong quoc s, sd., tr. 73].

      1. Phan Boi Chau b mac mu tuyen truyen boi nho nham dap tat phong trao Can vng cua Hector (kham s thc dan Phap), ong Khanh, Nguyen Hu o, Phan Liem, Pham Phu Lam, bon ta ao trong Thien Chua giao, sau khi at nc va Trieu nh hoan toan ri vao tay giac Phap. The he cu Phan con b anh hng t nhieu do s nhoi so bi noi dung giang day, co the nh ban thao ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien e luc k (1885 1888), trong nha trng thc dan na phong kien (trng hoc phu, huyen va Quoc t giam). ay chnh la cac nguyen nhan tao ra s hoang mang, roi nhieu, tac hai khon lng trong xa hoi Viet Nam hoi o. Mat khac, nhan thc ve hien thc lch s trong thc te i song cua Phan Boi Chau van co nhieu sai sot. Cu Phan sai lam en mc lan lon chi tiet cu the nhat la cai chet cua Pham Than Duat vi cai chet cua Nguyen Van Tng; tham ch cu khong biet chnh xac ba tnh Mien tay Nam k mat vao nam nao!v.v S sai sot ay la do s bng bt thong tin, b ngan cam lien lac Trong ieu kien b thc dan oc quyen thao tung, lung oan, xuyen tac thong tin va b chung han che lien lac nh the, lam sao cu Phan hieu va biet c chut g ung vi s that ve nhng nhan vat lch s trong Trieu nh Hue trc ngay 06.9.1885! Nhng nhan vat lch s ay lai cach the he cu Phan en bon, nam mi tuoi! Hue lai xa Nghe An tt mu tap! Noi nh vay, chung toi a ngoai tr ra nhng ghi nhan khong sai sot ve phong trao Can Vng (2); rieng kha canh su thue (20 loai thue cua thc dan Phap vi s tan ac cua chung) la van e sat sn, nhan dan x Nghe va ban than cu Phan cung phai ganh chu, th khong the sai sot c. Phong trao nhan dan chong su thue nang ne day len vao nam 1807 Trung k la mot minh chng T o, vi cai  nhn tong the ve Viet Nam vong quoc s, co the noi rong ra, ngoai nhng nhan thc chnh xac ve ban chat thc dan noi chung va s phan khang cua nhan dan noi chung, khong phai ngi yeu nc, nhiet tam cu nc la khong sai sot ve kien thc lch s, ma tham ch van sai sot nghiem trong na la ang khac, va co lam ngi sai sot mai cho en cuoi i!

     T sai sot en ao ngc s that lch s ve Nguyen Van Tng la do mot thu oan chnh tr.

     2. Phan Boi Chau chu trng bao hoang, ton quan, trung quan nh mot thu oan: ton phu Cng e, hau due cua hoang t  Canh (tn o thien chua giao) [T phan (3), sd., tr. 31, tr. 35 37, tr. 77, tr. 104]. Phan Boi Chau co ra sc tao lai uy tn cho hoang toc trieu Nguyen von b Duc c, Hiep Hoa, Hong Hu lam st me, do o, cu quy het toi lam mat nc la do cac ai than va T Du! iem nay, Phan Boi Chau bao hoang hn vua! Cu Phan  con kem xa v vua yeu nc Thanh Thai. Thanh Thai a bao am c s that lch s, a chng to c s cong minh cua s hoc (s hoc bat v than, luat phap bat v than), va nh the la gi c uy tn cho vng trieu Nguyen.

     3. Phan Boi Chau lien ket vi mot bo phan linh muc, giao dan (chac chan khong phai vi Giao hoi Thien Chua giao Viet Nam) trc khi xuat dng vao nam 1905 [T phan, sd., tr. 42]. Do o, Phan Boi Chau o toi e a kch trc tiep Nguyen Van Tng, T Du, a kch am ch Nguyen Phuc Thuyet (cu Phan khong goi la Ton That Thuyet hay Le Thuyet). Va khi Phan Boi Chau a sang Trung Hoa, cu khong mot lan ghe tham Ton That Thuyet, mac du hoat ong nhieu nam gan ni Ton That Thuyet ang song lu vong [T phan, sd., tr. 55].

     4. Phan Boi Chau b chi phoi bi t tng ai Han chu ngha, bao hoang, noi han chnh bien Mau tuat cua Lng Khai Sieu (hoc tro cua Khang Hu Vi) [T phan, sd., tr. 56 59]. Lng Khai Sieu a trut han t thai hau T Hi va Vien The Khai sang hai hnh tng van s bat phan a b bop meo theo y o chu quan la thai hau T Du va Nguyen Van Tng e van ong cho cach mang Trung Hoa ngay trong nc Trung Hoa. Lng Khai Sieu a viet, ang bao va in Viet Nam vong quoc s e phat hanh chu yeu Trung Hoa, mot phan Nhat Ban; so lng ban sach a ve Viet Nam ch 50 cuon. Y tng miet th ngi Giao Ch, e cao ngi Viet b lai Han mot cach vong ban, chang le la t  tng cua Phan Boi Chau? [NTPCPBC., Viet Nam vong quoc s, sd., tr. 78; Viet Nam quoc s khao, sd., tr. 182 184] (4).   

      5. Phan Boi Chau hoat ong cu nc theo phng cham cua nha chnh tr ba ao Machiavel: cu canh (muc ch cuoi cung) bien minh cho phng tien (thu oan, vu kh vat chat, tinh than, bat ke xau, tot, thien, ac, vinh, nhuc) [T phan, sd., tr. 12, 17].

     Trong 5 nguyen nhan o, chung toi cho rang 2 nguyen nhan 2 va 3 la quan trong, nguyen nhan 4 (b chi phoi bi Lng Khai Sieu) la quyet nh. ung hn, chnh  Lng Khai Sieu a viet phan ln Viet Nam vong quoc s (VN VQS.) vi s ong tnh cua Phan Boi Chau nh cac hoc gia Trung Hoa a bao nam khang nh.

      T chu trng chnh tr, phng cham hoat ong chnh tr va kien thc lch s nh the, t viec chu tac ong cua cac moi lien ket nh the, khong la g khi cu Phan (va Lng Khai Sieu) viet ve Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, T Du nh vay, trong Viet Nam vong quoc s (VNVQS.,1905).

      Tuy nhien, can thay ro la Viet Nam quoc s khao (VNQSK.,1909), Phan Boi Chau quy toi lam mat nc la ch do T Du ma thoi (NTPCPBC., VNQSK., sd., tr. 201; xem them tr. 148 149, tr. 305 306). Phai chang Phan Boi Chau a mac nhien phu nhan nhng dong ch cu viet ve Nguyen Van Tng Viet Nam vong quoc s, do s phan hoi cua cong luan?

      Phan Boi Chau khong viet cu the, nhng chung ta van thay c oi ieu qua thai o ngi oc Viet Nam vong quoc s trc khuynh hng chnh tr bao hoang, ai Han chu ngha von la can nguyen trc tiep cua van e (the hien chng I cua VNVQS.; xem them sd., tr. 61 62). Lu Vnh Phuc la mot ngi Han lam quan cho ca Thanh lan Viet, Nguyen Thien Thuat nhan an e oc cua nha Thanh (5), chung toi khong noi en. Con Phan Chau Trinh, cu im lang, khong tan thanh ton quan kieu o? Rieng Ton Trung Sn (Ton Dat Tien), tuy cung la ngi Han nhng von e xng chu ngha tam dan, la to thai o ro ret:

     Ton [Dat Tien TXA. chua them (ct.)] v a oc qua ban Viet Nam vong quoc s, ong biet trong oc toi cha thoat khoi quan chu t tng, nen ong het sc bai bac ang quan chu lap hien la h nguy (T phan, sd., tr. 77).

     o la oc chu trng chnh tr qua s k, mot khi s k a b bien thanh phng tien tuyen truyen!

     Ve sau, khi tam s vi GS. Nguyen Thieu Lau, vao khoang thi gian gan cuoi i (trc 1940), Phan Boi Chau a phu nhan Viet Nam vong quoc s (chac chan la ch cac trang ve Nguyen Van Tng, T Du, Ton That Thuyet) va phu nhan ca Nguc trung th, tuy van xem hai cuon sach ay dau sao cung co ch, vi li le to ve chua xot, t ai:

     Toi trot viet hai bo sach o v no ghi ten toi e lai (nguyen van li cu Phan, xem Nguyen Thieu Lau, Quoc s tap luc, Nxb. Mui Ca Mau, 1994, tr. 12).

     o la luc cu Phan giang ve Kinh xuan thu, mot mau mc ve tn s cua nha nho, cho GS. Nguyen Thieu Lau, bat cht Nguyen Thieu Lau hoi cu Phan ve Viet Nam vong quoc s va Nguc trung th ! Trong tnh huong ay, cu Phan khong the khong t ai, lai khong the khong vt vat t ai bang oi cau trch thng!

     Ho Song cung a phe phan Viet Nam vong quoc s khi gii thieu Viet Nam quoc s khao:

     Viet Nam quoc s khao [] khong phai la mot tac pham trong o nhng xuc ong manh liet, nhng thuyet l ve nhan sinh nhieu khi lan at phan s lieu nh trong Viet Nam vong quoc s. [] Viet Nam quoc s khao mang tnh s hoc ro ret [vi nhng sai sot nhat nh TXA. ct.] (NTPCPBC., VNQSK., sd., tr. 149).

     GS. Lng Duy Th cho Viet Nam vong quoc s la mot tac pham nang phan h cau (fiction), sau khi ch ro vai tro cua Lng Khai Sieu trong viec viet va in tac pham ay:

     Gia tr ve mat t lieu lch s b han che. Gia tr thc cua Viet Nam vong quoc s la gia tr van chng (T ien van hoc, tap II, Nxb. KHXH., 1984, tr. 548).

     Con y kien cua GS. Tran Van Giau, chung toi a co lan viet:  Dau sao GS. cung a gian tiep phu nh, a pha cac dong ch trong von ven hn mot trang sach va trong mot oan khac, von viet sai lam, xuyen tac ve Nguyen Van Tng, (va Ton That Thuyet trong viec phe lap), Viet Nam vong quoc s cua Phan Boi Chau, Lng Khai Sieu (xem: Chong xam lang [CXL.], [Nxb. Xay Dng, 1956 1957], Nxb. TP.HCM. tai ban, 2001, tr. 316 319, tr. 547, tr. 549 567). Tuy nhien, do GS. Tran Van Giau nhan thc khong ung ve tinh than chu chien cua mot nha ngoai giao kheo leo nhng van cng ran la Nguyen Van Tng va tinh than chu chien mot nha quan s cng ran nhng thieu mem deo la Ton That Thuyet trong s so sanh, nen i en anh gia khong chnh xac. Hn na, GS. Tran Van Giau co y khong biet en s anh trao nhan vat trong ve That thu Thuan An, mac du trong ai Nam liet truyen, tap 3, Nxb. TH., 1993, tr. 125 a ghi ro: Nguyen Trong Hp la ngi xe chan vai trang, viet len o ch Au e au hang Phap, ch khong phai la Nguyen Van Tng (CXL., sd., tr. 432)! Nghiem trong nhat la GS. lai co y khong biet ti hai bc mat du cua Ham Nghi (va Ton That Thuyet) t Tan S gi ve cho Nguyen Van Tng va hoang toc sau cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi (05.7.1885) (ai Nam thc luc, chnh bien [NTL.CB.], tap 36, Nxb. KHXH., 1976, tr. 225 228)! Sao GS. lai pht l i tinh than au tranh khang khai cua Nguyen Van Tng trc ke thu a thang tran, vi ten tay sai c hoi Nguyen Hu o ma ca Hanh Thuc ca [HTC.] (6) cung ghi nhan (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 236 237; HTC., sd., tr. 48)? Chang le GS. co tnh quen ca ban an cao th cua De Courcy, De Champeaux va ca ban an chung tham cua nguy trieu ong Khanh ve Nguyen Van Tng (va Ton That Thuyet, Trng Van e, Tran Xuan Soan) (NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 247; tap 37, sd., tr. 35)? Nhng c lieu nay va nhieu c lieu khac ve Nguyen Van Tng trong hai thang chia tach trieu chnh, chung toi a trch dan, ghi ro xuat x, va a phan tch, bnh luan bai nghien cu Nguyen Van Tng vi nhiem vu lch s sau cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi (05.7.1885) cua chung toi. ay, xin ch nhac lai nh the.

     Cai chnh la GS. Tran Van Giau a co tham khao Viet Nam vong quoc s (Chong xam lang, sd., tr. 585 586) nhng hau nh phan bac lai Phan Boi Chau (thc ra do Lng Khai Sieu viet) nhng trang ve Nguyen Van Tng Dau vay, GS. van con nang li!

     Vi bai nghien cu nho, viet theo dang phan tch tng chu iem noi tren, chung toi a gian tiep tranh luan, nh chnh lai nhng g GS. Tran Van Giau co tnh quen, co y sai lech, hoac thieu sot, vi tinh than dan chu trong hoc thuat.

     Van e ay van ang la mot vai trang ao ngc s that lch s trong Viet Nam vong quoc s ma GS. Tran Van Giau a chng minh la sai lac, xuyen tac, mac du GS.  khong ch ra trc tiep ch danh Phan Boi Chau (va Lng Khai Sieu!).

     Hn na, trong gii s hoc, gii nha van Nam, Bac, 1954 1975, va ca trc o cung nh sau nay, mac du co nhieu li khen che, tham ch dng ng chuyen ba e can c vao o ma ch trch tham te, nhng cha co ai viet ve Nguyen Van Tng (1824 1886) mot cach xuyen tac bang loi ao ngc s that lch s nh Phan Boi Chau (thc ra la do Lng Khai Sieu!). Noi gon hn, ch moi tac gia Viet Nam vong quoc s viet ngc nh vay!

     Chung toi trnh bay nhan thc nh tren khong phai nham phu nh toan bo tac pham VNVQS., va e phu nh nha yeu nc ln, tac gia ln Phan Boi Chau, ma ch cot ch ra nhng han che, sai sot nghiem trong va tai hai cua cu Phan. Va lai, cu Huynh Thuc Khang a nhan nh ve Phan Boi Chau that tham tha: Van muc ch, bat van thu oan chnh la cau t phe bnh i that bai cua Cu [Phan] (T Phan , sd., tr. 12), chung ta con noi them g na (7)! Va chung ta con biet noi g na, khi chnh cu Phan a viet:

     Li t phan: Lch s cua toi, hoan toan la lch s that bai. Nhng so d [ kiem iem lai? TXA. ct.] c cai that bai o, nhng cho t vet rat ro rang, ma nhng cho co the t tn c, cung khong phai la khong co. [] Mot i mu viec g, ch cot hoi ni muc ch, cau thu hieu nam phut cuoi cung; en thu oan, phng cham tuy co luc thay oi cung khong ke. [] ieu tren thng t ngh la mot chut lanh co the ke ra c. Biet ta chang? Toi ta chang? eu tha nhan ca.

                     (T phan, sd., tr. 17, 18).

     Neu noi them, co le phai khang nh, ng bao gi qua me tn vao mot ai, cho du o la v nhan, v v nhan van la mot con ngi vi nhng han che nhat nh! Va phai tnh tao, sang suot, khoa hoc, bnh tam nhan chan rang: Khong mot danh nhan nao, v nhan nao, ke ca giao chu sang lap ton giao nao, that s toan bch. Nguyen Thng Hien, ngi tuoi tre a chng kien, a khoc thng thai pho Nguyen Van Tng (khong qua Tay mon bi thai pho), va nhieu ch s khac, ve sau, khi gia nhap Duy tan hoi, Quang phuc hoi, au phai moi ieu eu tan thanh theo cu Phan! Ho chap nhan ai ong, tieu d e cung dan bc tren con ng cu nc, cu dan.      

     Chung ta cung thng thay, mac du cung muc ch giai phong dan toc, chong ngoai xam, nhng khac the he, khac lap trng, khac chnh kien, nhng ngi yeu nc v l do tuyen truyen, ho co the chup mu lan nhau! Van muc ch, bat van thu oan la the! Noi nh vay, chung toi khong co y nh anh ong ban chat, ong c cua moi loai chnh kien, ke ca loai chnh kien cua bon tay sai, thc dan, phat xt, e quoc, ta ao.

     Rot lai, chung toi thay can phai co mot tinh than khoa hoc thc s nghiem minh, vi quyet ngh can cong bo rong khap cua hoi ngh khoa hoc lch s e x l mot vai trang ao ngc s that lch s ve Nguyen Van Tng trong Viet Nam vong quoc s. Hn na, van can phai thanh loc not nhng trang sach hien ang ton tai von b nhiem oc bi s tuyen truyen boi nho cua thc dan Phap, ta ao, bon banh trng ai Han va nguy trieu ong Khanh, Khai nh, Bao ai Khong co g bi kch hn, au xot hn khi ngam lai, nhan ra ngi yeu nc b mac mu, nhiem oc tuyen truyen cua cac loai giac o, co the ke them loai chu hoa, bao hoang ngu trung, e ha be, boi nho, tiep tay giac ap tan tanh ngi yeu nc! (ap tan tanh, cach dung t cua ten kham s thc dan De Cham     peaux! (8)).

     La lp chau chat cua the he cu Phan, chung toi dam au vo le vi tien boi. Nhng trong van nghe, hoc thuat, khong co tinh than phe phan va t phe, se khong co s  tien bo, se ri vao tr tre, tut hau, ngay ca trong sang tac, nghien cu. Noi dung t phe (T phan) cung can c ngi ng thi va hau the phe bnh, gop y! kha canh cu the khac, ne tranh van e, khoa chan tinh than phe va t phe, la nhan tam trc noi au long s hoc, trc van nan ang phien trach (tng vo hnh trung a giai quyet ve c ban tuy con nhieu han che tai hai, mot cach rong rai bang quoc ng, t 1921, luc Viet Nam s lc cua nha giao, hoc gia Tran Trong Kim xuat ban).1982, Viet Nam vong quoc s tai ban trong tnh trang khong c x l mot cach khoa hoc va thch ang. That ang kinh ngac, vao nam 2001, Trung tam Ngon ng ong Tay van con lien ket e tai ban Viet Nam vong quoc s vi mot vai trang ao ngc s that lch s nh vay cung vai dong phe phan m ho, ne tranh!

     e ket thuc bai viet, xin nhan manh lai 2 iem:

     Ve tnh khoa hoc vi cac s lieu goc (CHAU BAN) c trch dan ay u cua ai Nam thc luc chnh bien, cac k IV (1847 1883), V (1883 1885), VI (1885 1888), chung toi a hn mot lan khang nh ro. Chung toi xem o la t  lieu chuan c e nghien cu giai oan lch s nay va cu the la ve Nguyen Van Tng. Nhng soan pham bien khao, cac bai nghien cu cua chung toi a the hien am net ieu o, trong khi ch i toan bo phan chau ban trieu Nguyen thi chong Phap va Can vng (1858 1898), kho lu tr at tai TP.HCM., c dch va cong bo, trong khi ch i Phap va Vatican dch va cong bo tron ven ho s thi thc dan cua ho cung thuoc giai oan nay. Mong cac s gia Phap, s gia Vatican hay co thien ch s hoc va y thc s hoc khach quan cao hn na, vi s chng kien cua cac s gia tren the gii!(9).

      Neu at mot s so sanh gia ai Nam thc luc IV, V, VI vi Viet Nam vong quoc s, se thay ra s chenh lech qua ang ve t lieu trch dan. T lieu trch dan trong Viet Nam vong quoc s la mc so khong! S hoc la g? n gian nhat cung la noi co sach, mach co chng. Va t lieu goc (10) ay la bang chng phap l, phai c giam nh thc nghiem (nien ai giay mc, but tch) la yeu to tien quyet, con moi quan iem bnh gia (tuy theo u the lan han che cua tng thi ai) van la th yeu. Noi nh the ve quan iem bnh gia, chung toi a xac nh: ao l va cong l dan toc (chu ngha yeu nc, nhan ngha Viet Nam truyen thong hien ai) la vnh hang. Phan Boi Chau  (thc ra la do Lng Khai Sieu) viet s nhng khong co mot c lieu s hoc nao ca, tham ch khong tham khao mot tai lieu nao ca, ma rat cam tnh, nhiet tnh en mc ch thay cai nhiet tnh cu nc ay va thu oan chnh tr, ch khong thay co thien tam va tr tue khoa hoc (xin at trong gii han van e va ch mot vai trang VNVQS.). Chung toi a co mot bai viet ngan ve kha canh nay.

     Ve thai o oi vi s hoc, chung toi a so sanh gia v vua yeu nc, b giac Phap lu ay tt tan hon ao Reunion gia bien chau Phi la Thanh Thai vi nha yeu nc, ong gia Ben Ng an tr tai kinh o Hue la Phan Boi Chau, va lay lam tiec cho cu Phan ve mot vai trang trong Viet Nam vong quoc s !

 

                                                          

                                                                    TRAN XUAN AN

 

 

   

    (1). Phan Boi Chau, Nhng tac pham cua Phan Boi Chau, tap I, gom VNVQS. va VNQSK., Chng Thau dch, Ho Song gii thieu, Van Tao chu bien , Nxb. KHXH., 1982.

 

    (2). Phan Boi Chau khong biet Le Trung nh khi khi ngha, ong c nhan tre tuoi nay lai qu quang ton phu Tuy L vng, mot nha th hoang toc a cau ket vi thc dan Phap vao thi Hiep Hoa nen b ay vao Quang Ngai, mac du Tuy L vng t choi. Tuy nhien cu Phan van xac nh ung: chnh ten phan boi Nguyen Than a giet Le Trung nh theo lenh Phap.

 

    (3). Neu chung toi nh khong nham, th trong mot cuon sach, Bac Ho a phe phan rat ch ang Phan Boi Chau: uoi cop [Phap] ca trc, rc ho [Nhat, Tau] ca sau.

 

    (4). Phan Boi Chau, T phan, Huynh Thuc Khang e ta (1946), Nxb. VHTT. tai ban, 2000. Hoi k nay c PBC. viet nam 1929, xuat ban lan au vao nam 1956 (sau khi cu Phan chet [1940] en 16 nam).

 

    (5). D ang Thai Bnh thien quoc a bien tng thanh ph; Lu Vnh Phuc a mu toan xam lc Cao Bang. oi vi at nc ta, Lu Vnh Phuc la ke a tng gay toi ac nhng cung la ngi co cong lao (NTL.CB., tap 31, sd., tr. 191, 220, 379; tap 32, sd., tr. 42; tap 33, sd., tr. 26; tap 36, sd., tr. 100). Trong ieu kien quan quan Trieu nh Hue b bo buoc bi cac hoa c, vi s cho phep cua T c, Lu Vnh Phuc c s dung e anh Phap.

   Nguyen Thien Thuat nhan an e oc cua nha Thanh nen khong may c nhan dan het long ung ho (Chong xam lang, sd., tr. 449; NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 253).

    Chung toi hieu v sao GS. Tran Van Giau e cao Lu Vnh Phuc en the S hoc tuyen huan rat can phai xem xet lai. Xin e s hoc phai la s hoc ung ngha.

 

     (6).  Nguyen Nhc Th Bch, Hanh Thuc ca, Tran Trong Kim [*] su tam, Nxb. Tan Viet, 1950 [?].

[*] Trong li ta cho bo sach Chong xam lang cua mnh, GS. Tran Van Giau cho biet: GS. rat chu y tham khao cac t lieu cua nhng hoc gia mac-xt va tien bo nh Tran Huy Lieu, Siec-s-no, ao Duy Anh nhng GS. van tha nhan Tran Trong Kim, cung nh Phan Tran Chuc, a tm c nhng t lieu lch s co gia tr  xac thc nhat nh [phai hieu la co vai mi phan tram sai lech, nhat la nhng dong Tran Trong Kim, Phan Tran Chuc boi nho nhan cach Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet](sd., tr. 12).

 

      (7). Van muc ch, bat van thu oan (cu canh bien minh cho phng tien Machiavel)! Vi quan niem o, Phan Boi Chau (Phan Th Han, Phan Sao Nam) khong phai la nha khoa hoc lch s, cung khong phai la nha van ung ngha! Ve van ong chnh tr, cau nhan nh cua cu Huynh Thuc Khang (xin phep cu Phan) la that ch ang! Tuy nhien chung toi van ngh rang so loai trang nh tren trong tac pham cu Phan khong nhieu.  

 

(8). Trch dan: Hom qua toi a tiep kien quan Thng bac, ong en bao cho toi biet la ong a t chc thng th Ngoai giao Toi khong ng viec van ong nho cua toi [vi Tran Tien Thanh TXA. ct., theo Y. Tsuboi] chong thng th o lai co ket qua nhanh chong en the V thay rang khong the m rong cac moi quan he chnh tr neu c phai giao thiep vi quan Thng bac mai, toi a ngh phai buoc ong ta t chc va thay ong ta bang mot ngi t chong oi anh hng cua ta hn Quan Thng bac van con la thng th Bo Ho va th trng Vien C mat. Vi t cach sau, ong van con co the chong oi chung ta. Muon thoat nan, ta con phai ap ong ta tan tanh ca pha ay (Lu tr AOM. Aix. Amireaux 12923; Champeaux, ai bien tai Hue gi thong oc Nam k; Hue, ngay 6.2.1881. Dan theo Yoshiharu Tsuboi, NNDVPVTH., sd., tr. 270).

     Trch dan oi chieu: Lai con noi rang, ngi nc Phap rat ghet vien Bac than trc la Nguyen Van Tng, tat roi se dung the lc cng bach truat thoai e ay i xa; vay cau noi nay la noi the nao?

     Oi! Ngi lam toi ai cung v chu nay, Nguyen Van Tng giup v nc nha, cung tc nh vien s Phap giup v nc Phap, cai ao lam toi tat phai nh the, co g ma ang ghet? Trc kia vien ay tuy sung chc Thng bac, cung vi ngay nay tuy a giai nhiem, song pham viec g eu co quan ai than hiep thng ban roi tau len mi quyet nh, vien ay co the nao oc oan e ngan tr viec? Va gia s co the lam oc oan th hang be toi nh vay con nc nao ma chang thch dung? Tng nc Phap cung nen ban thng e khuyen khch cho nhng ke lam toi trong thien ha va e gng i sau vay. Nh Han Cao To phong cho Quy Bo va chem nh Cong, Tong Thai To phong tang cho Han Thong va truat phe Ngan Thang, nh the mi hp cai ao tr nc, ch co khi nao lai xua uoi bo i; neu nh the th bao nhieu ke lam toi tha thiet v vua mnh cung uoi bo ca hay sao? Va con lay g ma to s khuyen trng? Vay quyet nhien khong co le ay (Du cua T c, ngay 19.5 al., T. 34 [1881], trch t: Th van T c, tap II, Ng che van tam tap, bai uoi vien hanh nhan Nguyen Hoang (linh muc), Nxb. Thuan Hoa, 1996, tr. 176 177). [au la cong l oi vi bon thc dan xa nay? TXA.].

 

     (9). Trong li gii thieu cuon sach Nc ai Nam oi dien vi Phap va Trung Hoa (Yoshiharu Tsuboi, UB.KHXH. Thanh uy TP.HCM., 1990), GS. Tran Van Giau viet: cai kho chau ban o so va quy gia co le con quan trong, can ban hn la t lieu cua Bo Hai quan va Bo Thuoc a Phap na.[] Khong khai thac chau ban mot cach triet e ma ch bang vao cac hang ngi Phap phan ln thuoc quan xam lc hay chuan b xam lc, th lam sao biet ro, biet ung mot thi k lch s mau chotcua nc nha, lam sao anh gia cac nhan vat chnh xac? (sd., tr. 12).

    Can c vao phng phap suy luan khoa hoc, chung toi oan chac rang cac chau ban c trch dan trong NTL.CB. IV, V, VI van la cac van ban tng oi co gia tr tieu bieu (theo nguyen tac s dung dan chng). T o, suy ra, kho chau ban khong the mau thuan vi NTL.CB. (1847 1888), ma ch lam ro hn, manh me hn nhng g con qua rut re cac phan s thuoc cac k ke tren: tinh than chong Phap, chong ta ao cua nhan dan, s phu va vua quan trieu Nguyen.

 

     (10). Xin xac nh chuan xac thuat ng t lieu goc hay cu the hn, ay la s lieu goc. Khong the cho rang Viet Nam vong quoc s la s lieu goc ve Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, T Du, Phan Thanh Gian , ma tac pham o ch la s lieu goc ve chnh Phan Boi Chau (va Lng Khai Sieu). Va lai, Phan Boi Chau cung khong phai la ngi chng cung thi, cung viec (ong thi, ong s) va tai cho ve nhng nhan vat lch s ke tren. o ch la s lc tren 2 net ngha trong nhieu net ngha khac cua thuat ng t lieu goc.

 

                                                                 TXA.

                              

 

 

 

 

 

TRAN XUAN AN

 

CACH VIET S THEO TIEU CH NGC

AI NAM THC LUC CHNH BIEN

K E LUC

VA CACH VIET S XUYEN TAC BANG

S AO NGC S THAT LCH S

MOT VAI TRANG TRONG

VIET NAM VONG QUOC S

   

    I.

     ay la mot van e s hoc rat ac biet trong tien trnh s hoc nc ta t xa en nay. Hien tng nay ch nay sinh thi oan dan toc ta b ri vao canh mat nc di ach xam lc cua thc dan Phap va ta ao trong Thien Chua giao. Nhng ton ong t cuoi the k XIX en nay van cha c giai quyet rot rao mot cach thc s khoa hoc, bi chu ngha thc dan cu a cao chung lai bien tng thanh chu ngha thc dan mi, va Thien Chua giao van la mot thc the gianh c s hp phap co to chc ngay di che o xa hoi chu ngha! Mac du at nc ang m ca, oi mi, va van bao am chnh sach ai oan ket, s hoc cung c phai vn len la khoa hoc lch s.

      Dau sao cung khong the muon hn c na! Hay e s hoc phai ch thc la s hoc! Co nh the, ai oan ket mi thc s ben vng, oi mi, m ca mi thanh cong.

      Trong y hng o, chung toi xin c a ra mot van nan cu the, a ghi ro thanh au e cua bai viet. Bai viet nay se c trnh bay mot cach khai quat, rat ngan gon.

II.

      Ve lap trng, quan iem viet s cua Quoc s quan trieu Nguyen, the hien Thc luc qua ba k IV (1847 1883), V (1883 1885), VI (1885 1888), chung toi a can c vao hai ban pham le cua k V, k VI va chu yeu can c vao thi iem phan k Thc luc e minh nh: Chnh trieu (1847 06.9.1885); nguy trieu (06.9.1885 1888).

a.      Chnh trieu: lap trng, quan iem yeu nc, chong Phap, chong ta ao Thien Chua giao; va t nhieu xen lan lap trng, quan iem bao hoang ngu trung trong s kien t tuyet tam vng va cac bi kch khac iem nh mau thuan oi khang: k IV, k V (1847 06.9.1885, ngay Nguyen Van Tng b Phap lu ay).

b.      Ngu trieu: lap trng, quan iem cua nguy trieu ong Khanh, nnh hot Phap, nnh hot ta ao Thien Chua giao, va boi nho ngi chong Phap, chong ta ao Thien Chua giao; ong thi cung va s dung bon ta aoThien Chua giao cac a phng e anh dep phong trao Can vng va phe phan chnh bon ta ao Thien Chua giao ay ang manh tam phuc thu, cp chnh quyen phu, huyen, lam suy yeu nguy quyen ong Khanh bu nhn: k VI (12.9.1885 1888).

         ai Nam thc luc chnh bien (k IV, V, VI) khong co s ao ngc s that lch s. Nhng ro rang la rieng k VI (12.9.1885 1888), Quoc s quan trieu Nguyen a the hien cach anh gia s that lich s theo tieu ch ngc, trai nghch vi chu ngha yeu nc cua dan toc, trai nghch vi cong l cua nhan loai ve oc lap dan toc va chu quyen at nc.

         Xin phan biet ro: cach viet s xuyen tac bang s ao ngc s that lch s vi cach viet s co anh gia s that lch s (gom ca nhan vat lch s) theo tieu ch ngc.

         cach th nhat, ngi chong Phap b ao ngc thanh ke cau ket vi Phap. Qua Viet Nam vong quoc s, Phan Boi Chau (thc ra la do Lng Khai Sieu) viet ve T Du, Nguyen Van Tng moi cach phi khoa hoc, thieu c lieu luan c, luan chng (o toi lam mat nc la do hai ngi nay va do Tran Tien Thanh). Nh the, vo hnh trung Phan Boi Chau (Lng Khai Sieu) a nguy bien cho Duc c, Hiep Hoa, Tuy ly vng, Hong Hu, Nguyen Hu o va phan nao cho Tran Tien Thanh (1). Cach viet khong co c lieu luan c, luan chng , theo phap luat xa nay, la a vi pham vao toi vu khong tren sach bao (toi cong khai s nhuc ngi khac bang van t)!

        cach th hai, ngi chong Phap la xau (!!!), nh Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet; va cung phi l thay, ngi nnh hot Phap lai la tot (!!!) nh ong Khanh, Nguyen Hu o Quoc s quan trieu Nguyen a the hien ro cach viet nay k VI (12.9.1888 1888), o la cach viet s theo he gia tr phan quoc, nham lu lai s that cho hau the minh xet. Hau the chnh la cac the he hien nay 

      Xet ve tnh khoa hoc, Thc luc ve cac k IV, V, VI at mc rat cao, trong s so sanh ong ai. Quoc s quan trieu Nguyen trch dan kha ay u cac van ban  nh  quoc th (ong Khanh gi chnh phu Phap, boi nho Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet), chieu, du, cao th (ve phong trao Can vng va vai tro cua Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet), ban an (De Courcy, De Champeaux ket an Nguyen Van Tng; ngu trieu ong Khanh ket an chung tham ve Nguyen Van Tng va ba thanh vien khac cua nhom chu chien), tau, s, ac biet la mat du (sac du gi Nguyen Van Tng, sac du gi hoang toc, t Tan S gi ve) o la cac van kien cua pha trieu nh ai Nam va pha thc dan Phap. Ngoai ra, s quan con ghi chep cac vu viec vi dien bien kha chi tiet ma van co ong. Hn na, nh phng thc lam viec tap the, moi thanh vien Quoc s quan eu phai lu danh e chu trach nhiem, nen Thc luc (IV, V, VI) at c tnh khach quan mot yeu tnh het sc can thiet cua s hoc (2), (3). Rat tiec, k e luc, o ch la ghi chep mot cach khach quan theo lap trng, quan iem nguy trieu noi tren.

      Tren ay ch la nhan nh khai quat chung trong mot bai viet ngan gon, nhng chung toi ngh, la het sc mau chot va can ban. Xin vui long xem them cac soan pham bien khao cua chung toi ve giai oan lch s nay qua viec nghien cu nhan vat Nguyen Van Tng (1824 1886).

      III.

     Chung toi a co dp so sanh thai o s hoc cua Thanh Thai vi cach viet s cua Phan Boi Chau. Tuy nhien, tng cung nen nhac lai: Thanh Thai van kien nh y thc s hoc bat v than trc s de doa cua thc dan Phap. V vua yeu nc nay khong chu ban du khac in k e luc (1885 1888), v k e luc nay von rat nhuc nha oi vi vng trieu Nguyen. Nhng tai hai thay, k e luc lai c khac in vao nam Duy Tan th 3 (1909), va sau o lai b truyen ba khap ca nc, dung e giang day trong nha trng thc dan na phong kien [xem t tau cua Quoc s quan, NTL.CB., tap 37, sd., tr. 8], trong khi o, k e t (1847 1883), k e ngu (1883 1888) sau khi khac in xong (khi cong: 1894, hoan tat: 1902) lai b cat vao kho s, va phat hanh rat han che [NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 5 va tr. 13]. Mot van e quan trong la o!

     Mot lan na, xin nhan manh ieu nay: Thanh Thai b thc dan Phap lu ay tt tan hon ao Reunion chau Phi; Phan Boi Chau lai an tr ngay tai kinh o Hue!

     Quyet nh khac in hay khong la vua Thanh Thai, ch khong phai Quoc s quan. o la ieu nhieu ngi quen lu y. Va mat khac, lau nay, ngi ta qua e cao vai tro tong tai, lai xem nhe cac bien tu, toan tu, khao hieu, nhat la khong anh gia ung mc cach bien soan tap the cua Quoc s quan (2), (3) (4).

      Van e quan trong nhat la t lieu goc c trch dan va quan iem, lap trng viet s  the hien ro net moi k cua 3 phan s noi tren. Nhng dau long da ngi chep s the nao i na, man phep gia nh nh the, th van e van la t lieu goc (cung tng t nh bang chng phap l trc toa an). Ten ke cp (thc dan), ke ong loa (tay sai) cung phai cui au trc nhieu bang chng (t lieu goc) va nhieu nhan chng (s quan; va ngi oc ng thi nh hoang toc, nh than, cac quan tnh, huyen).

      Cuoi cung, vi quan iem, lap trng yeu nc va dan toc cua chung ta, vi cach nhn khoa hoc, cu the lch s, xin hay oi chieu NTL.CB. IV, V, VI va VNVQS. vi toan bo (hoac t ra cung mot phan nao o) sach bao cua thc dan va co ao a viet theo nhan quan va quyen li xam lc cua chung thu bay gi, a xuat ban tai Phap, tai La Ma, tai Viet Nam t 1847 en nay, 2002; xin n c: hay oi chieu vi toan bo cac so tap ch Nhng ngi ban co o Hue  (Bulletin des amis du vieux Hue, 1914 - 1944)!

                                                                       

     IV.

       Rat tiec la giai oan va qua va hien tai, t trc va sau thi iem xay ra bien ong ong Au va Lien Xo cu en nay, thi oan ma khuynh hng s hoc nc ta cha kp khac phuc tnh chat au tr ta khuynh, may moc, thieu cai nhn bien chng, khong xet en tnh lch s cu the, nang phan tuyen huan v muc ch chnh tr nhat thi, hoac li dung s hoc lam cong cu phuc vu cho cong tac mat tran, th cac the lc than Phap, than ta ao lai ngoc au day, thao tung, lung oan ca van nghe, hoc thuat, nhat la trong s hoc, vi cac thu oan phuc thu hen ha, ay tnh chat lu manh trong viec lam sc ep, mua chuoc, ong thi ra sc ao ngc s that lch s! Nhn tren sach bao hien nay, ai cung thay bon noi loan, bon tay sai cua thc dan, ta ao, ke ca bon ta ao ngi Phap, a c ca ngi, ton vinh nh the nao! Lu giau o bm leo, nhan c hoi ph Tau (giac C) quay nhieu, xam chiem bien gii pha bac nc ta, chung noi len cp pha huyen lang, giet choc nhan dan rat tan ac nh nhng ten Nhiem, ai, Chuyen, va d ang giac theo ao Gia-to Ta Van Phung lai c goi la khi ngha (sic!) (xem: Nhieu tac gia, ai cng lch s Viet Nam (toan tap), Nxb. Giao duc, 2001, tr. 506 507). Tham ch, Trng Vnh Ky, ke theo thc dan Phap suot i, trong luc ca dan toc ang chong Phap, lai c at ten trng hoc e giao duc the he tre noi theo tam gng tay sai! Nguyen Trng To, inh Van ien von la tay sai co vu trang, la au so giac tng gay hoa t trc, nay lai oi lien ket vi thc dan Anh e chong thc dan Phap (sic!) (theo cach noi cua nh than trong N TL.CB., tap 31, Nxb. KHXH., 1974, tr. 262 263), lai ieu tran banh ve, cung c e cao tan tri!

      Viec lam sc ep, mua chuoc e ao ngc s that lch s a va ang xay ra!

      May thay la ngi ta cha phuc hoi cai ten ong Khanh (5) tren cong cua mot ngoi trng ln nhat nh Hue, 27 nam nay c thay bang 2 ch ay t hao cho hoc sinh thanh pho co o ben dong song Hng: Trng Trac!

 

                                                         

                                                                    TRAN XUAN AN

 

 

  

   (1). That ra, Phan Boi Chau (va Lng Khai Sieu) ch len an quyen gian trong vu truat phe Duc c bang vai dong ngan ngui khi viet ve Phan nh Phung (NTPCPBC., Viet Nam vong quoc s, Nxb. KHXH., 1982, tr. 89). Ai cung biet: Phan Boi Chau am ch Ton That Thuyet, ngi trc tiep ra lenh troi; va Bo Hnh cach chc Phan nh Phung (luc ay, Phan nh Phung con chu hoa). Ngoai ra, Phan Boi Chau khong viet mot ch nao ve vu Hiep Hoa (than Phap) va vu Kien Phuc (do Hong Hu). Lai k quai thay, Phan Boi Chau (that ra la Lng Khai Sieu) khong mot li len an bon c hoi, cam tam ban nc cau vinh nh Nguyen Hu o!

 

   (2). Trng Quang an la tong tai cua Quoc s quan trong giai oan tap the s quan bien soan lan cuoi cung e t k (cac tap 27 35), va ong cung la tong tai t au en cuoi suot thi gian Quoc s quan bien soan e ngu k (tap 36). Trng Quang an la ngi a cung Bui An Nien (Bui D) anh Phap quyet liet va co nhieu cong lao trong cac tran anh o. Ong thuoc nhng ngi c Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet va nh than anh gia la co the mu o cho ai cuc ve sau. Cao Xuan Duc ch lam tong tai trong qua trnh khac in e ngu k (ban thao a hoan tat t thi Trng Quang an), va tron ven nhng nam bien soan e luc k (2 tap 37 38). Dau sao i na, nh a trnh bay: Trc t lieu goc (tng t nh bang chng co gia tr phap l) va nhan chng lch s (nhan chng ong thi, ong s, ong trieu , ke ca hoang toc ), bat k ai cung phai cui au tha nhan s that lch s, huong na s quan y thc ho phai lu danh lai tren nhng trang s cho hau the! Va tren tat ca, ay la tinh than yeu nc, y thc s hoc bat v than cua Thanh Thai.  Chung toi muon khang nh ro ieu nay mot lan na.

 

   (3). Phng thc bien soan tap the ung ngha: Khong phai moi ngi trong ban bien soan phu trach mot phan roi em ghep lai thanh mot bo sach hoac mot cuon sach, ma cac t lieu, chi tiet s kien, dien bien lch s, hanh trang nhan vat lch s, ke ca nhan nh, bnh gia eu phai c tap the can nhac, lay y kien chung roi phan cong ngi chap but, sau o tap the bien tap lai. Hn na, con phai xuat ban e trng cau cong luan bang nhieu hnh thc cong khai, gom viec lay y kien nhan chng con song (trong ieu kien bay gi) Tap the s quan thng la vai chuc ngi tr len (xem danh sach cuoi phan m au moi k).

 

   (4). Ngoai ra, Quoc s quan trieu Nguyen con ghi ten ho that, pham ham cua cac vien thu chng, ang ta, but thiep thc, ang luc (rat tiec la con thieu que quan; xem them: Quoc trieu hng khoa luc).

 

   (5). Trong ngay le hoi hang nam cua Trng n Trung hoc e nhat va e nh cap ong Khanh tai Hue, trc 1975, cac giao s, n sinh ch k niem cuoc khi ngha Hai Ba Trng!

                                                                                                TXA.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TRCH OAN CHONG XAM LANG

 

                                 (VA NH MOT CACH OI THOAI

                                 VI GS. TRAN VAN GIAU)

     I.

     Chung toi khong dam vin vao nhng cau khiem ton trong li noi au (viet vao nam 1956) cua GS. Tran Van Giau bo sach Chong xam lang (Nxb. TP.HCM. tai ban, 2001) e ngh rang GS. khong phai la nha s hoc, ma ch la mot ngi hoc s e lam cong tac tuyen huan cua ang, trong hoan canh thc dan Phap thong tr, ngi co hoc lai ch hoc s Phap va rat mu m ve quoc s. Tuy nhien, chung toi van mao muoi nhan nh: Quan iem mac-xt le-nin-nt, GS. a van dung mot cach kha may moc, khong xet en tnh lch s cu the. Le ra, phan kien thc s hoc phai tuyet oi khach quan, con phan lien he, van bao am muc ch yeu cau tuyen huan, neu can thiet phai tuyen huan. Phai chan thc ve lch s, tuyen huan mi co sc thuyet phuc, tc thi trc mat va ben vng lau dai ! Ngoai viec van boi dng long cam thu giac ngoai xam va tay sai, nen khang nh y thc khong co g quy hn oc lap t do va nen dan chu mi, hn la boi nho che o phong kien trong lch s, mot hnh thai chnh tr t ban chat a qua loi thi, mot i khong tr lai.

       Dau sao, chung toi thay cung can noi ro hn, ai Nam thc luc chnh bien, cac k IV, V, VI (1847 1883; 1883 1885; 1885 1888) [ban dch Vien S hoc, cac tap 27 38, Nxb. KHXH., 1973 1978], Quoc s quan phai bien soan trong ieu kien nc mat, Thanh Thai, Duy Tan luon b e doa phai lu ay, roi cuoi cung ca hai v eu b lu ay. Do o, phan s ve ba k tren (1847 1888)  a bat li (khong dam ghi nhan ro tnh chien au, tinh than chong Phap) cho T c, Nguyen Tri Phng, nhat la qua bat li oi vi Nguyen Van Tng (1824 1886) va cac thanh vien khac cua nhom chu chien Trieu nh Hue, ke ca phong trao Can vng. Nguyen Tri Phng v t tiet t 1873, khong pham vao toi chong cac ten vua than Phap, au hang Phap, va a c trieu nh khang nh t 12 nam trc khi ca trieu nh lan toan bo at nc ri han vao tay giac Phap, nen kho be loai ong ra khoi ai Nam liet truyen, mac du tinh than chong Phap cua ong cung ch c viet mot cach qua rut re. Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, Tran Xuan Soan lai khong he co c mot trang tieu truyen rieng trong bo Liet truyen ay! a the, le nao chung ta lai cang ha thap, bop meo, them bt khong ung s that ve ho, ch v ho la nhng ngi yeu nc, chong Phap nhng lap trng lai thuoc ve he y thc phong kien va la vua quan trieu Nguyen? Nhan thc thieu sot nen anh gia sai? Hoac ch e cao Ton That Thuyet va phong trao Can vng, bi nhan thc khong ung ve Nguyen Van Tng, ng rang ong a thc s au hang? Chang le s hoc co quyen nhan thc sai, s hoc khong co cong l va cong bang?

      Tuy the, dau sao, qua Chong xam lang, GS. cung a gian tiep phu nh, a pha cac dong ch trong von ven ch hn mot trang sach va trong mot oan khac, von viet sai lam, xuyen tac ve Nguyen Van Tng, (va Ton That Thuyet trong viec phe lap), Viet Nam vong quoc s cua Phan Boi Chau, Lng Khai Sieu (mot ngi nang t tng bao hoang, ai Han chu ngha; xin xem: T ien van hoc, Nxb. KHXH., 1883 1884, tr. 346 347 [tap I], tr. 445 446 [tap I], tr. 548 549 [tap II]).

      Ve t lieu, dau kho khan va thieu thon, b Phap va Diem cp em vao Sai Gon hoi 1954, GS. cung a tiep can c nhieu nguon nh GS. a ke ro: t lieu cua Phap, trieu Nguyen, cac nha ai quoc Van than, t lieu Trung Quoc, Lien Xo, t lieu cua cac tr thc mac-xt, tien bo nh Tran Huy Lieu, Chu Thien Hoang Minh Giam, ao Duy Anh, va ca t lieu Tran Trong Kim, Phan Tran Chuc    

      GS. Tran Van Giau viet ve t lieu cua e quoc Phap: Lam khi khong tm ra cai nguon au tien ma b bat buoc phai dung sach nghien cu cua bon thc dan luon luon xuyen tac s that; ve t lieu trieu nh Hue: bien soan theo quan iem va quyen li phong kien suy tan; t lieu do cac nha Van than ai quoc ngoai Bac, trong phong trao cach mang va khang chien nhieu gia nh b ch ot pha nha ca, mat mat giay t quy bau; va t lieu Trung Quoc bay gi ang c su tam Trong so t lieu van con cac th vien Ha Noi o, d nhien co ca Viet Nam vong quoc s cua Phan Boi Chau (va cua Lng Khai Sieu, mot ngi bao hoang, ai Han chu ngha hang nang!). Le tat nhien la tat ca cac loai tai lieu tren eu phai c oc va xet vi mot y thc phe bnh cao, mot quan iem Mac Le vng th mi co the tiep can vi s thc khach quan cua lch s; Tran Trong Kim, Phan Tran Chuc, Van Ha v.v cung a gom gop c mot phan tai lieu chnh xac, song, tat nhien la quan iem cua nhng tac gia nay khac xa vi quan iem cua chung ta; cho nen nhieu ni toi co trc tiep hay gian tiep tranh cai nhng quan iem cua cac nha s t san, cung nh nhieu ni toi co a pha quan iem cua s gia thc dan (CXL., sd., tr. 7 12).

      Van e con lai la: t lieu goc cua pha thc dan Phap. Phap bao 100 nam sau khi viec xay ra mi cong bo! Han giai mat lau en the sao? Hay ch nhan chng chet het mi cong bo t lieu goc? Hay con am mu g khac?

      T lieu goc cua pha trieu nh Hue vi nhng quoc th, du, chieu, tau, s, cao th, ban an co chau phe, thng c goi la chau ban, va con co ca ban an cao th cua De Courcy, De Cham-peaux ve Nguyen Van Tng, cac van ban khac cua Phap gi trieu nh Hue, c trch dan trong NTL.CB. IV, V, VI (1847 1888), khong phai la t lieu goc sao?

      Xin c nhac lai ieu nay: Thanh Thai van gi vng tinh than Le Thanh Ton Nguyen Trai va kien nh y thc s hoc bat v than trc s e doa cua thc dan Phap. V vua yeu nc nay khong chu ban du khac in k e luc (1885 1888), v k e luc nay von rat nhuc nha oi vi vng trieu Nguyen. Nhng tai hai thay, k e luc lai c khac in vao nam Duy Tan th ba (1909), luc Duy Tan con qua be, va sau o lai b truyen ba khap ca nc, dung e giang day trong nha trng thc dan na phong kien [xem: t tau Quoc s quan, NTL.CB., tap 37, sd., tr. 8], trong khi o, k e t (1847 1883), k e ngu (1883 1885), a c khac in t 1894 en 1902, lai b cat vao kho s (va phat hanh rat han che!) [NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 5 va tr. 13]. Mot nguyen nhan quan trong cua van e la o!

     Tuy vay, vao nam 1916, tren Bulletin des amis du vieux Hue (BAVH.) [Nhng ngi ban co o Hue (NNBCH.), tap 3, nhieu ngi dch, Nxb. Thuan Hoa, 1997, tr. 29], Aldophe Delvaux, trong bai viet, a xac nh ong ta la ngi a s dung au tien va la ngi duy nhat c s dung vao thi iem o t lieu chnh thc cua Nha nc Phap (gom chnh quyen bao ho). 1921, Tran Trong Kim xuat ban Viet Nam s lc, c viet bang quoc ng. 1982, Yoshiharu Tsuboi, giao s Nhat Ban, c s tai tr cua Chnh phu Phap, c s hng dan cua GS. Georges Condominas, s giup cua mot so nha s hoc Phap, a cong bo them nhng t lieu cha cong bo trc thi iem 1982; Thanh uy TP.HCM. a xuat ban ban dch tieng Viet cua Nguyen nh au va nhieu dch gia khac, vao nam 1990, vi cac li gii thieu cua Ban KHXH. Thanh uy TP.HCM., va cua chnh GS. Tran Van Giau. GSTS. Yoshiharu Tsuboi the hien trong tac pham tieu ch nhan nh la oc lap dan toc, ch khong phai la th tieu ch cua bon xam lc nh trong BAVH.. Noi cu the hn, khac vi quan iem thc dan trong BAVH., Tsuboi xac nh ro Tran Tien Thanh, Nguyen Hu o, Phan nh Bnh la tay sai cua thc dan Phap, va nhng ngi yeu nc, chong Phap chnh la Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, Hoang Ta Viem Tieu ch oc lap dan toc ay, ung vi ao l va cong l cua bat k at nc nao tren the gii. Nhng GSTS. Nhat Ban Yoshiharu Tsuboi van con the hien trong cuon sach s nhan thc va s dung t lieu, theo quan iem bao hoang, t san cua chnh Y. Tsuboi

      Rat tiec, cho en nay, nam 2002, Phap, Vatican van cha cong bo tron ven t lieu goc cua pha ho; chau ban trieu Nguyen, kho lu tr c at TP. HCM., cung ang trong tnh trang cha cong bo!

       Nh vay, ro la t lieu a tng oi ay u cac nguon, nhng cha tuyet oi tron ven. V the, viec cong bo tron ven toan bo t lieu goc cua Phap va cua trieu Nguyen, khong e sot mot mau nao, van la yeu cau bc thiet va chnh ang cua viec nghien cu khoa hoc lch s giai oan nay.

       GS. Tran Van Giau trong li gii thieu cho cuon sach cua Y. Tsuboi con cho rang, kho chau ban trieu Nguyen thc ra con quan trong hn ca ho s t lieu thuoc Bo Hai ngoai va Bo Thuoc a Phap, thi thc dan Phap xam lc nc ta. GS. a xac nh rat ch l cai chu yeu va cai th yeu, cho du cai th yeu ay khong nen thieu sot. Cai chu yeu la ieu kien can (at co, phai co), cai th yeu la ieu kien u. Co ay u t lieu goc cua pha Phap e tham khao, oi chieu van rat can thiet, qua can thiet, va van tot hn cho viec nhan nh s kien, nhan vat, tuy o khong phai la cai quyet nh. Noi rang t lieu goc cua pha Phap khong phai la cai quyet nh, bi cai nhn thc dan, ai cung biet nh the nao roi (thu han, meo mo, xac lao, ay ac tam).

       Vang, chau ban la cai chu yeu va quyet nh. NTL.CB. IV, V, VI dau sao cung khong the mau thuan vi toan bo chau ban t 1847 en 1888 con lu tr trong kho.

       Mac du the, chung toi ngh, trong tinh than dan chu tren lnh vc hoc thuat, can phai neu van e e khong con tnh trang co tnh, co y, chu tam hoac v l do ben ngoai s hoc nao o ma quen i nhng t lieu goc het sc quan trong ve Nguyen Van Tng, ngay trong ai Nam thc luc chnh bien IV, V, VI (1847 1883; 1883 1885; 1885 1888), e anh gia ve ong mot cach het sc bat cong; hoac tai ban mot bo sach c viet t 45 nam trc, ay la nam 1956, ma khong c tac gia bo sung, sa cha lai! TXA.

      

    Tren c s lay NTL.CB., chu yeu 2 k e t va e ngu, ban dch cua To Phien dch Vien s hoc Viet Nam, Nxb. KHXH., 1973 1976, lam chuan c, xin trch dan t bo sach Chong xam lang cua GS. Tran Van Giau mot so oan kha chnh xac di ay. Nhng cau ch xem ra khong can thiet, hoac xet thay sai lech (dien dch gan nh xuyen tac, s rang khien ngi oc ng GS. co ac y), hoac nhan ro la tuyen huan khien cng, qua ang va khong sat hp, xin man phep lc bo, thay bang k hieu:[], [&?!?]. Ngoai ra, co cho chung toi khong lc bo nhng anh phai bay to y kien rieng bang b chu hoac cung bang cac dau bieu cam nh: [?!?] Chung toi hi vong co luc GS. se xem xet lai, tren c s nghien cu lai mot cach nghiem tuc, cac trang GS. a viet ve nhan vat Nguyen Van Tng (1824 1996) trong bo sach Chong xam lang cua mnh, e ng ri vao trng hp cua Phan Boi Chau, b st me thanh danh, lai gay kho khan cho hau the. TXA.

 

     II.

     []

       Ngay 26, Phi-lat cung Nguyen-van-Tng len en Hai-dng. Tng lai phi t cho Bac-ninh, Hng-yen trch ra 1.000 quan e chuan b tiep thu thanh Hai-dng (2-1-74). ay mac du ten vo quan Phap la Trang-ti-nhan cng au muon chiem gi mai, mac dau ten nguy tong oc Trng (Gac-nhe mi at len, von la ngi th ren theo cong giao) muon mu bat Nguyen-van-Tng e pha hoai s ngh hoa (Tng biet mu gian o, ban vi Phi-lat bat Trng em gi di thuyen may), Phi-lat ha lenh trao tra thanh luy cho quan Nam trieu va ra lenh chuan b trao tra Nam-nh, Ninh-bnh. Hac-mang va Hot-t-phi tuy phan oi ma cung thay rang nh the la chong c thoat khoi nguy c b tieu diet nen chung rut lui khong may phan nan.

      []

       (sd., tr. 317).

      [].

       Ch can ke lai mot buoi noi chuyen gia Phi-lat va uy-puy, th u trong thay khong kh xung ot trong am thc dan luc bay gi Ha-noi. (Nen chu y rang trong vu xam lc nay, cac cha co I-pha-nho khong chu ung ho bon Gac-nhe va Puy-gi-nhe).

       T may hom ray, uy-puy ti lui tm gap Phi-lat mot la e hoi tai sao tau chien cua Phap ot pha 28 thuyen ch gao Bac-ky sang Hng-cang ngoai ca Cam, trong so gao nay, co von cua uy-puy hun vi cac nha t san Hoa-kieu, hai la e keu xin ng tra lai thanh Ha-noi cho trieu nh Hue; Phi-lat khong cho gap.

       May hom sau, khi gap c Phi-lat, uy-puy xin ng tra thanh, xin boi thng thiet hai cho han (1 trieu quan), xin c bao ve cho thuyen han i Van-nam, th Phi-lat khong nhan li nao. uy-puy keu nai co ve hung tn th Phi-lat noi:

      Ngi ban than lam chu cai tiem than cua mnh; cac quan An-nam la chu trong nha cua ho; ho khong muon anh en nha ho th anh lay quyen g ma anh c en, c ?.

       uy-puy nong tiet len, hoi lai:

     Neu toi en Bac-ky trai vi nguyen vong cua ngi An-nam th th hoi ngi Phap ti Nam-ky co ung vi nguyen vong cua ngi An-nam khong?.

      Le tat nhien Phi-lat cng hong, lien ap:

     Chung ta en Nam-ky vi t cach cua ke cp, ke trom. Anh va Gac-nhe cung la ke cp, ke trom thoi.

      Neu Gac-nhe khong chet th han se b truy to toa an quan s.

      uy-puy oi lay cua trieu nh trong cac thanh e boi thng cho han, th Phi-lat tra li rang, o oc uy-p-re khong co dan g ve khoan nay ca; uy-p-re lai bao cho uy-puy xa lanh Bac-ky i, i len Van-nam i, i ma khong c em theo phao thuyen quan oi nh dao trc.

      Con giam muc Puy-gi-nhe, t khi Phi-lat en vi Nguyen-van-Tng th xuong nc han i, khoc loc. Ong thoi phong them nhng chuyen co that, la cac quan va cac nha nho bat giet ngi cong giao a theo Phap anh lai at nc Nam; ong ke le cho Ba-le-zo rang nhieu lang cong giao a theo Phap nay b ot; th Ba-le-zo ap:

      Cac quan An-nam co sc ngan can s tra thu c chng nao hay chng ay, viec xay ra nao phai loi t ho au; ngi cong giao phai tra cai g ho a vay trong luc Phap chiem ong, o la le t nhien.

       Puy-gi-nhe than:

       Bay gi cac ong lai o loi cho chung toi.

       Toi a mat het uy tn oi vi tn o cong giao roi.

                               (Evenements du Tonkin, trang 250).

       Khong phai Phi-lat va Ba-le-zo cam can cong ly au. Chung van la canh thc dan ca. Song thc dan Phap ang trong cai the khong the khong hoa c, v the ma chung phai bop bung chu vay, chung sang suot hn la bon uy-puy, Gac-nhe, chung s rang neu anh luc ay th a chang lay c Bac-ky lai con s mat ca Nam-ky na.

       Trong va sau khi thng ngh tra thanh, Ninh-bnh, Nam-nh, Hai-dng va Ha-noi, nhat la 10 ngay theo sau cac cuoc tra thanh, co nhieu vu tra thu, nhieu vu bat b, giet choc va truc xuat canh ngoai. Trieu nh phan th s Phap can thiep na, phan th bat lc, nen ch ngoi ng khong co chnh sach khoan hong, cung khong co chnh sach oan ket lng giao; nhng ta hay ghi rang tat ca cac cha co a tan lc mo ngu binh cho Phap, keo quan i anh pha ni nay ni no, ch iem cho giac, lam thong ngon cho giac, eu c yen toan cho en khi 10 nam sau, luc Han-ri Ri-vi-e en th ho lai tr lai lam cai viec ma ho a lam trong cuoi 1873 va au 1874. Lai co mot ieu rat ang c chu y va e cao la phe khang chien luc nay a biet truyen hch cho ong bao cong giao, cho ma ta cong giao ch nen nghe li ch cam vu trang chong lai nc nha, ma hay tr lai vi dan vi nc, quay sung anh Tay (Evenements du Tonkin, trang 275); li keu goi o cung co ket qua: tin on quan trieu nh ra gan ti Tam-iep th nhieu ma ta Ninh-bnh, Nam-nh bo hang ngu ch. Ngay trong so cha co, ha khong co ngi ai quoc? uy-puy a chang goi cha Huan (lien lac va thong ngon cua quan Nam trieu) la mat tham cua trieu nh hay sao?

      Lai ac biet chu y en ieu nay la cac lang cong giao nao ma khong co tham gia giup Phap chiem lay Bac-ky th khong co ai ung cham en, o la trng hp cua tat ca cac x ao do cha co I-pha-nho cam au. Cac x ao nay co so tn o tren 10 van, gan bang mot phan na so tn o do cha co Phap cam au. Ngay trong cac xom cong giao co ngi theo Tay th noi chung, ch co nhng ke tan ac va ke lam lo ren ren vu kh cho nguy binh mi b trng tr (Lemire, LIndochine, trang 301).

      Ben pha Phi-lat th yeu cau lam nh c mi trong khi trao tra thanh; nhng luc bay gi th Tng thng thuyet tren cai the tng oi manh. Ben trieu nh oi lap lai tnh the trc khi xung ot roi se nh c mi. Nh co thang tran Cau-giay! Con Phap th boi roi do d, nen Phi-lat c toan quyen uy nhiem cua uy-p-re e giao thanh trc roi mi nh c sau. Ninh-bnh c giao tra ngay 6.1.74, Nam-nh ngay 10.1. Quan vien chinh cung rut khoi Ha-noi, tr mot trung oi lai lam ho ve cho vien lanh s Ray-na. Ten con buon con o Giang uy-puy b truc xuat, tat ca tai san cua han b niem phong Hai-phong. Ngay 16.2, thanh Ha-noi c giao tra. Ngay 4.3, Phi-lat ve Sai-gon e chuan b hoa c.

      Trai qua mot tran phong ba, ai ai eu trong thay cang ro s muc nat cua bo may phong kien, cang trong thay ro long ai quoc cua nhan dan.

      []

      (sd., tr. 317 320).

      []

      Du sao i na, trong trieu nh Hue, Thuyet la lanh tu cang cng nhat luc ay, tieu bieu nhat cho y ch e khang; ch co nhng ngi hoac la toi oi cua thc dan, hoac thieu suy ngh ky, mi khong chu thay rang mat tot cua Thuyet la can ban; ch co nhng ai b s thc dan me hoac qua mi xem ao quan Phan-ngha cua Thuyet to chc la loc la e cp pha, giet choc, la e cho Thuyet chuyen quyen ca nhan. Thuyet la mot nha ai quoc. T nhng vu phe vua en am sat Tran-tien-Thanh, cac hanh ong o, can ban eu co muc ch cu nc chong Phap ca; tieu diet nhng phan t than Phap, au hang, la ieu phai lam, lam khon kheo chang, ung mc chang, ay la viec khac. Thuyet nam binh quyen tc la thc quyen [vu trang TXA. chua them (ct.)], cho nen khong phai ten kham s Phap Hue muon g cung c; mac du rang ten L-me-r co quan ong ngay Hue, ben kia song va ngay Mang-ca, L-me-r van phai kieng ne Thuyet, cha dam bc bach trieu nh mot cach qua chng mc.

      []

      (sd., tr. 547)

      []

      Trong luc nhan dan t ong khang chien th quan oi chnh quy cua trieu nh Bac-ky khong anh na, ch trong chng, ch i; nhieu ngi ai quoc mo binh khang chien ma lay danh ngha nha Thanh nen khong may c nhan dan het long ung ho. Con trieu nh th viec phe lap bieu hien mau thuan hai phe chu hoa va chu chien [&?!?].

      []    

      (sd., tr. 449).

      []

      Nhac lai T-c chet ngay 19-7-1883. T-c khong con, nuoi 3 ngi chau lam con nuoi, con nuoi trng la Thuy quoc cong Duc-c; th hai la Kien-Giang quan cong Chanh-Mong; con th ba la Dng-Thien. Di chieu cua T-c noi rang Duc-c khong ang lam vua; Dng-Thien ang hn, nhng Dng-Thien con qua nho; the nc ng nguy, can co vua ln tuoi, nen anh lap Duc-c lam vua, nhng ben canh phai co mot hoi ong phu chanh gom Tran-tien-Thanh, Nguyen-van-Tng va Ton-that-Thuyet.

      Nguyen-van-Tng va Ton-that-Thuyet khong chu lap Duc-c la ngi ma ho thay rang khong co ch ca, khong mu viec ln c, nen bo di chieu cua T-c ma lap em ruot cua T-c la Lang quoc cong Hong-Dat len lam vua, lay nien hieu la Hiep-Hoa, con Duc-c th [1nam 3 thang sau TXA. ct.] b giam, b bo oi en chet. Phan-nh-Phung can ngan khong c viec phe lap, b troi giam nha giam Cam-y roi b cach chc uoi ve tnh nha.

      Sau hoa c 1883, trieu nh Hue van con chia lam hai phai, au hang va khang chien; phai au hang la a so; phai khang chien la thieu so trieu nh; nhng Thuyet nam binh quyen, lam binh bo thng th, lai co mot so kha ong quan quan ngoai Bac luc uc keo ve theo lenh triet binh cua trieu nh, nen phan ln trieu nh phai nghe theo Ton-that-Thuyet [&?!?].

      

      Mot lan na, xin khang nh ro, chung toi a gian tiep tranh luan vi GS. bang bai viet phan tch hai cau bo sung cua bai th Giai trieu: Nguyen Van Tng vi nhiem vu lch s sau cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi 05.7.1885. ay, xin noi them: T luc con lam tri huyen Cam Lo, phu doan Tha Thien, tham tan, tan l tieu ph bien gii pha Bac en luc am nhiem chc vu thng th Bo Ho, quan l Thng bac ai than, phu chnh ai than, Nguyen Van Tng van chu trng chien a mi co the hoa, hoa e thu, thu e mu chien (xem: Chau ban) chien la phng thc c ban, quyet nh (tien quyet va hau quyet). Thi iem 1883 1885 va hai thang sau ngay 5.7.1885, khong the khong chien c. o la luc T c cung cho rang ta khong tnh chung, chung cung tnh ta; tnh trc th thang, Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet eu xac nh the a thanh ci ho, ten a tren cung (NTL.CB., tap 35, sd., tr. 197; tap 36, sd., tr. 214 215; xem them: tap 30, sd., tr. 170 171; tap 31, sd., tr. 86 89, 103; ac biet, xem tieu muc 2.a.3 cua bai Nguyen Van Tng vi nhiem vu lch s sau cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi 05.7.1885 cua chung toi).

       oc k cac t lieu goc, chung ta thay ro: Nguyen Van Tng bc len the ci ho, trc mui ten tren cung, khong phai t 1883, ma t hn mi lam nam trc o, 1868 (ban tau thang 3 al., NTL.CB., tap 31, sd., tr. 202 - 204), ac biet t 1873. Va Nguyen Van Tng luon luon trong the ci tren lng con-cop-ke-thu la giac Phap, trc mui ten a tren cung cung cua ke thu la giac Phap, cho en khi b lu ay en tt tan Tahiti.

(Xem them: T c, Th van T c, tap II, Ng che van tam tap, bai uoi vien hanh nhan Nguyen Hoang [linh muc], Nxb. Thuan Hoa tai ban, 1996, tr. 176 177; Bu Ke, Chuyen trieu Nguyen, bai Toa Kham s Phap, Nxb. Thuan Hoa, 1990, tr. 78 101; H. Cosserat, bai Ngi ta viet s nh the nao: on tiep ai ta Guerrier tai trieu nh nc Nam ngay 17.8.1884, NNBCH. (BAVH., 1924), tap XI, Phan Xng dch, NXB. TH., 2002, tr. 373 397); va nhieu bai viet khac cua thc dan, ta ao Phap trong BAVH. [xin xem cuoi bai viet nay cua chung toi], vi cach oc chu yeu la oc vao thai o thu han cua cac tac gia von la thc dan, ta ao ngi Phap ay oi vi Nguyen Van Tng, ngha la oc vao thai o thu ban, ch ta cua chung).

       Nguyen Van Tng khong phai la mot ngi ngay th, ma la mot nha chnh tr sau sac; ong kien quyet, ben b chong Phap, va tat nhien, ong hieu rat ro long cam thu sau sac, dai dang cua Phap oi vi ong, chung luon luon quyet ap tan tanh uy the cua ong, nen ong nhan thc cung nh thc dan Phap nhan thc, la khong the oi tri chung, cho du trc hay sau ngay T c mat (19.7.1883), cho du trc hay sau ngay Kinh o Quat Khi (05.7.1885). TXA.

      

       Hiep-Hoa thay Ton-that-Thuyet va Nguyen-van-Tng khong chu thi hanh tan c bao ho, ma c chu trng khang chien th s cho a v lam vua cua mnh, va biet cho khac nhau gia Thuyet va Tng, nen vua Hiep-Hoa t thong vi kham s Phap va mu oi Thuyet sang bo lai, Tng sang bo binh. Biet mu gian ay, Thuyet va Tng xin vi T-Du thai hau bo Hiep-Hoa, ma lap hoang t Dng-Thien 15 tuoi, con nuoi th ba cua T-c, len ngoi vua, nien hieu la Kien-Phuc. o la cuoi nam 1883. Hiep-Hoa b phe, viec ay cung ung thoi, lam vua lai t thong vi giac th ch la giac, b phe roi th tat nhien trong tnh trang xa hoi va trieu nh luc bay gi khong the nao khong b  am hai c.

      []

      a so nh than va ca vua Kien-Phuc vi hoang gia lai thng t thong vi kham s Phap Hue, lam tr ngai cong viec cua Ton-that-Thuyet, cho nen en thang 7 nam 1884 chung ta se thay Kien-Phuc chet bat ng, m am, Ton-that-Thuyet va Nguyen-van-Tng se chon ng-Lch, ton len ngoi la vua Ham-Nghi mi 12 tuoi.

       []

       (sd., tr. 549 511).

     

        Thu pham, theo chung toi, o la Hong Hu (?). Xin xem: NTL.CB., tap 36, sd., tr. 151, 167, 176 177 . TXA.

       

          []

       Ngay 27 thang 6, ten tng Cuoc-xy cung vi quan nam C-re-tanh cam au 4 ai oi bo binh, ap hai tau chien t Hai-phong vao Hue.

       Khi Cuoc-xy i vao Hue vi quan oi cua han th ten tng Bri-e Lin-x Ha-noi tuyen bo rang:

       Toi luon luon ngh rang cai cach duy nhat e giai quyet hien tnh la phai bat coc hai ngi quan phu chnh.

       Hai ngi quan phu chnh o la Ton-that-Thuyet va Nguyen-Van-Tng. Ban than Cuoc-xy a na up na m:

       Phai giai quyet ca van e nay tai Hue.

       Ch. Got-s-lanh co chep lai mot oan trong bc th cua mot ten thc dan viet vao ngay 1-7-1885:

        Tre con hn khong. Ta se bat Tng va Thuyet chang, hay ta se lam sao cho ho khong con co cach g pha hoai ta na.

                         (Gosselin, LEmpire dAnnam, tr. 197).

         Cai ieu lam cho bon thc dan ham hc nhat la Ton-that-Thuyet, Nguyen-van-Tng nam ca bo binh va bo lai, ngha la thc quyen con lai trong tay cua trieu nh Hue. Thuyet va Tng hanh ong khong phai hoi y kien cua kham s thc dan. Phap ham hc hn na la v Thuyet va Tng mot mat tap trung nhieu quan ve Hue, ong thi em nhieu cua cai vang bac, lng thc ngay cang nhieu len cac sn phong. ch d oan rat ung rang neu mot hom nao o, trieu nh se i theo so cua cai ay, th khong co g la la ca.

       Phap nhat quyet lan nay phai nam han toan bo hoi ong phu chnh, tay tr Thuyet, Tng ra khoi hoi ong nay, va nhat la giai tan quan oi cua Ton-that-Thuyet, tc la siet chat nen o ho, lam cho trieu nh hoan toan phu thuoc vao thc dan Phap.

       Tng la mot quan van, trc la tri huyen Quynh-loi [thc ra la Cam Lo, ni ong a xay dng thanh luy Tan S, thuoc tnh Quang Tr TXA. ct.], sau lam phu doan Tha-thien, t nam 1875 vao vien C Mat; ong la mot nha ngoai giao kheo leo, mem mong, ngot du, thng thau tam trang cua chnh khach [&?!?]. Tng lam phu chnh th nhat, trc Thuyet. Van e mau thuan gia Tng va Thuyet khong phai la van e a v nhat nh nh cac nha s thc dan thng noi, ma can ban la hai mau, hai o khac nhau cua mot canh e khang trong trieu nh. Tng chu trong ve thng thuyet, nh sc manh cua bo oi e ma noi chuyen vi Phap, con Thuyet th t tng e khang manh hn, co the i en vo trang tranh au neu Phap lan lt qua.

      []

      (sd., tr. 549 550).

      []

      Thc ra khong phai i en khi Cuoc-xy sang th mi co bon thc dan muon giai quyet mau, an mau, an tron bang cach bat Thuyet va Tng, giai tan quan oi Viet-nam. Ngay 6 thang 8 nam 1884, ngha la va hai thang sau hoa c 6-6-1884, ten ai ta Ghe-ri-e a mang 600 quan, 2 oi phao binh va chien thuyen vao Hue vi nhiem vu la chiem lay hoang thanh neu vien C mat khong tuan theo toi hau th cua han; nhng toi hau th a en, Thuyet khong nghe; Ghe-ri-e khong dam lam g; ch xoay sang cach khac; ngay 17-6-1884 ay, ten kham s Phap va cac ten vo quan thc dan vao trieu nh yet kien nha vua, th Thuyet gian gia quan lnh va van vo ba quan rat chnh te; vua Ham-Nghi ch ngoi tren ngai ma tiep kham s Phap, khong i xuong  on, cung khong ng day tiep; sau le yet kien, Thuyet cho quan hau dat ca oan Phap i ra bang ca hong, khong cho ra ca chnh; bon thc dan rat tc toi; song ca nc Viet-nam luc bay gi phan khi, hoan nghenh thai o c ch cua Ton-that-Thuyet, nhat la cua vua Ham-Nghi. Trong quyen Le Roi Proscrit, tac gia Mac-xen Go-che viet:

      Nh the, vua Ham-Nghi gi c tnh chat thieng lieng oi vi than dan mnh. Vo tnh v vua tre tuoi mi lam mot viec ma anh hng lan doi ln lao trong ca nc: khang nh cai y ch muon gi oc lap va du Phap co ong quan Hue th trieu nh van khong quy luy trc ho. Cai thai o tieu bieu cua v vua tre tuoi ay la do hoi ong phu chnh bay ve thoi, hoi ong phu chnh rat co ly ma tin chac rang quan chung nhan dan trong vao thai o cua vua e ma noi theo, xem thai o ay nh la mot menh lenh khong noi ra bang li, e cho nhan dan khang c vi ke mi en(Marcel Gauthier, Le Roi Proscrit, trang 40 41).

      o la nam ngoai. Phap am c nhng gia nh khong biet bi v chien tranh Trung Phap luc ay hay con ang chay. Nam nay, chien tranh Trung Phap dt roi, Phap muon co Hue mot ong vua ngoan ngoan, hay nghe, de bao, muon co mot vien C mat va mot hoi ong phu chnh gom toan ngi than Phap; muon c nh vay th theo ke hoach cua Cuoc-xy phai bat coc Thuyet va Tng, giai tan quan oi Hue; Thuyet b bat th, theo Cuoc-xy, canh e khang se t nhien tan ra.

      []

      (sd., tr. 550 551).

      []

      Ngay 3-7, Cuoc-xy mi Tng va Thuyet qua ben kia song e thng ngh tai dinh cua han. Le co nhien la he hai v lanh tu cua canh e khang ma qua song th se khong tr lai na, hoac neu co tr lai th o la sau khi quan oi a b giai tan roi, sau khi mot hoi ong phu chnh khac a thanh lap roi. Cuoc-xy tng la mu cao, hoa ra cai am mu loai Hong mon ho yen nay, Vien-ong tre con nao lai khong biet? Thuyet cao benh khong i. Ch co Tng va Pham Than Duat qua song. Bat Tng va Duat th khong co li g ca, v binh quyen ngha la thc quyen [vu trang TXA. ct.] la trong tay Thuyet. Cuoc-xy nai bao Thuyet phai en. Thuyet cang thay ro am mu lo lieu cua giac Phap nen e phong them can mat.

      []

      (sd., tr. 552).

      []

      Thay tnh hnh cang thang, Thuyet gap rut chuan b oi pho; mot mat, gi gap ra Quang-tr nhieu tai san quy bau cua trieu nh, ca sung an; mot mat khac th lam chien luy trong thanh, tap trung them quan vao trong noi. Hoang thanh xay t 1805 en 1820 la mot cai thanh vuong, moi be 2 kilomet ri, mot mat giap song Hng, ba mat co hao sau; tng thanh lam bang mat a cao 10 met; tren mat tng co d tram ai bac. Trong thanh co d van binh lnh. Cac cuoc phong ng va hoat ong nay, giam muc Cat-pa eu biet va eu co bao cao hang luc cho Cuoc-xy. Cuoc-xy van khinh thng thoi.

      Trieu nh b bat buoc phai khang c bang vo lc hay la phai bo tay nap cac lanh tu ai quoc va giai tan quan oi; bang khong nap Thuyet va giai tan quan oi th Cuoc-xy se no sung trc. Nhng viec a xay ra Ha-noi nam 1873 va 1882 vi Gac-nhi-e, vi Ri-vi-e con ranh ranh trc mat; nhng bai hoc au n cua Nguyen- tri-Phng, Hoang-Dieu con ranh ranh trc mat, nay quan quan va nhan dan kinh thanh sap phai gap canh tan cong man tra cua ch th phai lam sao? Cuoc o mau em 4-7-1885 Hue tuyet oi khong the goi la cai bay trap cua Ton-that-Thuyet ma la mot cuoc chien au t ve cua quan va dan ta trc s tan cong, trc am mu cam bay cua ch.

      []

      (sd., tr. 553).

      []

      Trong luc ao quan trong noi kiem che sc tien cua giac th hu quan o thong Ho-van-Hien va Nguyen-van-Tng  rc vua Ham-Nghi va ba cung bo kinh thanh ra i theo ca tay nam. Thuyet rut quan ra sau cung, ho gia len Trng-thi ( La-ch); ay co mot phan cua ao quan Ton-that-Le ho tong. Cung vi xa gia ch con co 100 quan ma thoi.

      C theo li thuat cua Le Tan Nguyen-nhc-th trong Hanh Thuc ca th T-Du khi ra khoi thanh a bao Tng lai Hue e thng lng vi giac Phap.

      ch chiem thanh, cp het cua cai quy bau trong hoang cung, vang bac t lua cua nha quan nha dan, ot chay hai bo binh va bo lai ma Thuyet va Tng phu trach. Khoi la boc, hai ngay tri mi het.

      []

      (sd., tr. 555).

      []

      Tng vao nha th Ham-long [Kim Long TXA. ct.] tm co ao Cat-pa (giam muc Loc) xin nh Cat-pa dat ra au thu vi Cuoc-xy (5-7-85).

      [&?!?]

      Le tat nhien rang Cuoc-xy dau khong thch Tng chut nao cung trong mong nhieu rang Tng co the g roi cho han bang hai cach: cung vi han ky ten cac t hieu trieu nhan dan, va co sc em vua tr ve Hue; Cuoc-xy ra lenh cho Tng trong hai thang phai vo yen ba tanh cho ky c; Tng [&?!?] van b giam long dinh Thng-bac, co lnh Phap canh gac.

      []

      (sd., tr. 556).

      [&?!?]

      Nguyen-van-Tng gi ten binh bo th lang Pham-hu-Dung i len [ra TXA. ct.] Quang-tr tau vua Ham-Nghi rang Cuoc-xy muon mi xa gia tr ve.

      []

      (sd., tr. 557).

      []

      Nhng gia luc Cuoc-xy boi roi vo cung th T-Du va Tam cung ve Hue. [&?!?] Vien C mat [&?!?], Nguyen-hu-o lam pho (o la pho vng Bac-ky c Phap tin can), lap mot so bo, trong o co bo binh do ten kham s Sam-po cam au.  Cuoc-xy ep am hoang than c Tho-Xuan lam phu chanh [nhiep chanh TXA. ct.], ep Tho-Xuan lam ban tuyen cao noi rang Ton-that-Thuyet la nghch ang, rang cac quan Bac, Trung phai cong tac vi quan Phap e tieu diet nghch ang,v.v Nhng chnh ch cung phai tha nhan rang ong gia Tho-Xuan 76 tuoi khong co anh hng g trong nhan dan ca, cang khong co anh hng g vi tang lp than s tr thc.

      Cai kha nang duy nhat cua ong phu chanh [nhiep chnh TXA. ct.] ch la ky ten ma thoi.

                                      (Gosselin, LEmpire  dAnnam).

       []

       (sd., tr. 560).

       []

       Hn na Cuoc-xy bat ca nhng ngi a au hang no [?!? TXA. ct.] ma khong lam viec c va y no, nh Nguyen-van-Tng. Nguyen Cuoc-xy han nh cho Tng trong 2 thang phai lap lai trat t; 2 thang qua, Tng khong lap c trat t g, b Phap bat a i Con-lon, roi i ao Ta-hi-ti, tat ca cua cai cua Tng eu b tch thu. Tng bo xng [&?!?] hai ao, [&?!?] minh oan vi hau the bang th:

        Sn sac thien trung thng tuy lien;

        Than tam nhat dang luyen an nh.

        Th phi nhien pho thien thu luan;

        Xa tac quan vng thuc trong khinh?

                   [nhat dang TXA. nhan manh (in am)]

        [&?!?]

        (sd., tr. 561).

     

      Trong bai viet tap trung phan tch bai th Giai trieu Nguyen Van Tng vi nhiem vu lch s sau cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi 05.7. 1885 , chung toi a lam sang to oan ket cua cuoc i Nguyen Van Tng. Cung tren c s cac van kien goc trong t lieu chuan c la NTL.CB. IV, V, VI (1847 1888), chung toi s dung them cac t lieu, bai viet cua Puginier, Delvaux, H. Le Marchant de Trigon , a c cong bo t 1890 en 1917 (t lieu Hoi Truyen giao Bac k, ngay 09.3.1890 [dan theo GS. Nguyen Van Kiem, K yeu Hoi ngh khoa hoc lch s vi e tai Nhom chu chien trieu nh Hue va Nguyen Van Tng, 20.6.1996, HSP. TP.HCM., tr. 14; BAVH., 1916, 1917, ban dch, sd.), va bai viet cua Jabouille, Mot trang viet ve lch s tnh Quang Tr: thang 9.1885 (Nhng ngi ban co o Hue [NNBCH.] [BAVH., 1923], tap X, Phan Xng, Ha Xuan Liem dch, Nguyen Vy hieu nh, Nxb. Thuan Hoa, 2002, tr. 434, 439 ) e minh chng.

      Tat nhien chung toi cung a phe phan luan ieu trong bai viet cua H. de Pirey, BAVH., 1914 [ban dch, sd.], va trong 2 bai viet cua Delvaux, BAVH., 1920, 1923 [ban dch, sd.], la ay thu han, thieu trung thc Rat tiec la hien nay nhieu ngi, trong chng mc nao o, con b nhiem oc t 3 bai viet va neu cua hai co ao von la linh muc quan hat tai Quang Tr nay! Va, xin vo phep c neu cau hoi: Phai chang GS. Tran Van Giau cung phan nao b anh hng cac chi tiet xuyen tac (von la thu oan khch tng, li gian cua Phap), bi luan ieu cua hai co ao ay, ma chung toi a lc bo? Chung toi cung xin vo phep ng rang cac tac gia trong ai cng lch s Viet Nam (toan tap) cung t nhieu cha thoat khoi nh kien do cac bai bao cua H. de Pirey, Delvaux noi tren gay ra (sd., Nxb. Giao duc, 2001, tr. 534 537)?

      Mong GS. oc k  bai viet cua chung toi mot lan na va quan trong nhat la kiem chng lai giup t lieu chung toi a ghi ro xuat x (NNBCH. [BAVH., 1914 1924], 11 tap va 1 tap ban dan, ban dch cua nhieu dch gia, Nxb. Thuan Hoa, 1997 2002).

      Ve hien tng th t gia, chnh la Th gi thong oc Tahiti (trong Lo Giang tieu s [1927]) cung a noi en. o la mot hien tng khong co g la, ngay thu bay gi. Chung toi a trch dan H. Le Marchant de Trigon (thanh tra hanh chnh Phap tai ai Nam)[bai V ai bien au tien cua nen bao ho en Hue, NNBCH. BAVH., 1917 , tap IV, Nxb. TH., 1998, tr. 273] e chng minh Th gi thong oc Tahiti cung la th gia. Cac t lieu cua Puginier (1890), Delvaux (1916)[sd.] cang chng minh noi dung la th ay la hoan toan ba at va xuyen tac s that lch s ma chnh Lo Giang Nguyen Van Mai mot ngi cang ve sau cang co khuynh hng hoa hoa tat ca, rat ang phan nan , chnh ong cung khong biet xuat x la th ay au. Hn na, oc k Lo Giang tieu s, ta thay chnh la th tren cung lam ao lon suy ngh cua Nguyen Van Mai ve Nguyen Van Tng: mot ngi chu chien yeu nc thanh mot ngi chu hoayeu nc!

       Sau khi a ky hoa c giap than roi, TON THAT THUYET khong chu qua Toa ma thng thuyet. V binh quyen trong tay, the nh ci cop, khong the xuong c, y muon lieu mot tran. NGUYEN VAN TNG, ngoai mat tuy chu hoa, ma be trong mot long vi THUYET  [TXA. gach chan (gc.)]. V vay ma lap on TAN S, Cam Lo [ ] The la hai ben khong the khong anh nhau c.

        Trong kinh luc ay mi yen, ma Nam Bac bat au khi ngha. Ong NGUYEN VAN TNG ti Gia nh co ngam cau tuyet cu rang:

                    Tay tr tu tr b do xch

                    Nam giang li chi qua v hoang

                    [Ln Tay lao tht da nen trui

                    Mang Viet la canh trai cha vang   

                            theo ban dch cua Lng An

                            TXA. chua them (ct.)].                  

      Ve khoan kinh thanh that thu nam At dau, mi ay [khoang 1927 TXA. gc. va ct.] ta c xem mot bc th cua Ong NGUYEN VAN TNG viet cho Ong Nguyen Soai Phap TAHITI cang ro hn na [TXA. gc.].

            (LGTS., Nguyen Hy Xc dch, ban in roneo, 1961, tr. 34, 38 39).

      That ra khong phai cang ro hn na, ma ngi a ngam 2 cau tuyet cu ay, tren ng b lu ay (am ch bon Phap xam chiem Hue va viec xuat bon cua vua Ham Nghi), khong the la ngi viet bc Th gi thong oc Tahiti ! Noi dung la th nay giong giong nh luan ieu cua Delvaux trong 2 bai viet Phap anh chiem kinh thanh Hue (NNBCH. [BAVH., 1920], tap IX, Phan Xng dch, sd., tr. 338 375) va Cai chet cua Nguyen Van Tng, cu phu chnh An Nam (NNBCH. [BAVH., 1920], tap X, sd., tr. 478 483)! Tuy nhien, ngay trong cac van ban Delvaux nhan c t giam muc Tahiti, khong he co bc Th gi thong oc Tahiti o, va trong bai viet Cai chet neu tren, Delvaux cung khong mot ch e cap en bc th ay!

      e phoi kiem, chung toi van can c vao t lieu goc (ch khong phai la th t lieu vu v!):

1.        Hai mat du cua Ham Nghi va Ton That Thuyet t Tan S gi ve;

2.        Ban an cao th cua De Courcy, De Champeaux;

3.        BAN AN CHUNG THAM  cua nguy trieu ong Khanh (mot ben, co ch k cua De Courcy!) ;

4.        Du, cao th cho cac tnh ta k cua ong Khanh, Hector, Nguyen Hu o, Phan Liem, Pham Phu Lam

[NTL.CB., tap 36, Nxb. KHXH., 1976, tr. 225 228, 247; tap 37, Nxb. KHXH., 1978, tr. 35, 138].

     Ch xin nhan manh: qua cao th tran ap, khuyen cao s phu, nhan dan cac tnh ta k nay cua thc dan, nguy trieu, ta con thay ro long trung thanh cua phong trao Can vng oi vi Nguyen Van Tng sau khi ong a b lu ay  (tap 37, sd., tr. 138). NTL.CB. con ghi ro Pham Phu Lam, Phan Liem a tra vi gia phai vay nh the nao trong thi gian lam kham sai ay (tap 37, sd., tr. 197, 222; tap 38, sd., tr. 12, 13). Va trc o, cuoc sat ta a bung len Quang Tr vao tra 06.9.1885, ngay sau buoi sang Nguyen Van Tng b bat (Jabouille, Mot trang viet ve lch s tnh Quang Tr: thang 9.1885, NNBCH. [BAVH., 1923], tap X, Phan Xng, Ha Xuan Liem dch, Nguyen Vy hieu nh, sd., tr. 434, 439 ).

     Cung xin a ra ba chi tiet sai lam trong Th gi thong oc Tahiti:

1.        Neu co s bat ong gia Nguyen Van Tng va Ton That Thuyet, th sao lai co hai mat du va an tnh, va cu the ve cong viec trieu chnh en the?

2.        Chang le Nguyen Van Tng khong nh mnh a b lu ay sau Ton That nh, Pham Than Duat (hai ngi nay b bat vao Gia nh trc)?

3.        Chang le Nguyen Van Tng nh nham ngay khong the nham c la ngay Kinh o Quat Khi (trong th lai ghi la em 23 rang ngay 24.5 At dau, 1885, nhng ung s that lch s chnh la em 22 rang ngay 23.5 At dau, 1885!)?

      Noi ro hn, cac t lieu eu khp vi nhau, ke ca bai th Giai trieu, ch ngoai tr luan ieu cua Delvaux (BAVH., 1920, 1923) va Th gi thong oc Tahiti (khong co xuat x trong LGTS., khong giam nh c bang phng phap thc nghiem!). T s phoi kiem o, chung toi ket luan Th gi thong oc Tahiti khong phai th that. e ket luan chac chan hn ve la th nay, can oc tron ven Lo Giang tieu s, o, the hien ro thai o chnh tr cua Nguyen Van Mai, trong ieu kien han che thi bay gi?

      Noi ro ra, chung toi tin chac rang la Th gi thong oc Tahiti a c ba ra, do nhng ngi chu hoa, nham muc ch bien minh cho chnh ho: ngi sang suot, co hoc (nh Nguyen Van Tng) th khong the sat ta c; ch ngi nong nay, t hoc (nh Ton That Thuyet) mi chu trng sat ta ma thoi!

      Cac thao tac phoi kiem, chung toi a the hien ro bai viet Nguyen Van Tng vi nhiem vu lch s sau cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi 05.7.1885, cung cac trch dan trc tiep nguyen van cac ban dch.

      Bi kch Nguyen Van Tng la bi kch cua mot lanh tu yeu nc, chong Phap, chong ta ao, phai am ng mot nhiem vu lch s rat eo le, de gay ngo nhan, trong ke sach va anh va am, sau khi kinh o quat khi nhng b that thu; roi t o, at nc hoan toan ri vao tay giac Phap va ta ao, trong mot thi gian qua lau (1885 1954), en noi nhng tuyen truyen boi nho cua giac Phap va ta ao a tr thanh nh kien trong nao trang cua vai ba the he! o con la bi kch cua mot phu chnh ai than co uy tn va anh hng ln trong mot giai oan lch s ma o cac chnh kien, he y thc va cham nhau gay gat, vi nhng lang knh khac nhau (bao hoang ngu trung, chu hoa, than Phap, than ta ao la cac khuynh hng cang ve sau cang lan lt, thang the); do o cac th  c goi la t lieu lai rat roi nhieu, de gay hoang mang! TXA.

       III.

        Tren ay la nhng oan, nhng cau trch t bo sach Chong xam lang cua GS. Tran Van Giau (va nhng ghi chu cua chung toi). Nhng cho chung toi lc bo, van con nguyen ven trong hang van ban sach cua GS., tat nhien GS. phai chu trach nhiem trc lng tam va cong luan! Theo thien y, chung toi t thay a at cac k hieu va dau bieu cam ung cho, phu hp vi nguyen tac trch dan.

         That ra, ch vi NTL.CB. IV, V, VI  (1847 1883; 1883 1885; 1885 1888), bang cach oc theo quan iem, lap trng dan toc, nhan dan, theo ao l Viet Nam, cong l nhan loai chan chnh, tien bo [*], th khong mot ai, ke ca danh nhan, nha yeu nc ngay th nhat, co the b lung lac ma vo tnh tiep tay giac Phap ap tan tanh Nguyen Van Tng c. Va tuy rang b mac mu tuyen truyen boi nho, cung khong mot ai co the ng tren lap trng bao hoang hn vua, ai Han chu ngha, lien ket vi mot so tn o Thien Chua giao, cho du nh cu Phan Boi Chau knh men (?vong ban?) a trot l, ma ao ngc noi s that lch s ve Nguyen Van Tng, von a c NTL.CB. IV, V, VI ghi nhan va bao chng!

[*]Xin xem them bai viet cua chung toi: Cach viet s theo tieu ch ngc ai Nam thc luc chnh bien k e luc (1885 1888) va cach viet s xuyen tac bang s ao ngc s that lch s mot vai trang trong Viet Nam vong quoc s.

       ay, e to long knh trong GS. Tran Van Giau, chung toi man phep trch dan va bnh chu, ong thi xin phep gop y vi GS. trong tinh than dan chu mi ch thc (ieu ma chung ta van ang khao khat, v ai cung chan ghet thai o hoc phiet trong hoc thuat!).

       Hi vong GS. se co dp oc nhng cuon sach cua chung toi viet va bien soan ve Nguyen Van Tng (1824 1886), ac biet la cuon Tieu s bien nien ve K V phu chnh ai than Nguyen Van Tng, von lay chuan c la NTL.CB. cac k a noi tren. Vi cac cuon sach cua chung toi, mong rang se gop phan nho e cham dt tnh trang ngi noi xuoi ke noi ngc rat rac roi, ta tam, hoc phiet, va kha v van!

       Tuy nhien, e cang sang to hn, van e con lai van la kho chau ban trieu Nguyen TP. HCM., va lam the nao e khai thac them cac kho lu tr ho s t lieu cua thc dan Phap, Vatican. D nhien, van e giam nh thc nghiem t lieu vi cac phng tien khoa hoc, k thuat hien ai, tinh vi nhat, vi cac phng phap xac minh lien nganh tien tien nhat khong the khong at ra! Va s chng kien, xac nhan cua cac s gia tren the gii cung het sc quan trong! o la yeu cau chung trong phng phap luan nghien cu s hoc trc bat k nhan vat, s kien, giai oan lch s nao.

       Chung toi hoan toan t tin ve nhng dong ch a viet ve nhan vat lch s Nguyen Van Tng (1824 1886).

       Knh mong cac bai viet cua chung toi ve Nguyen Van Tng c ang tai tren bao ch cho rong ng bnh luan cong khai, e i en ket luan cuoi cung co tnh khoa hoc nghiem tuc, ch thc.

       Knh mong c ch giao.

       Tran trong.                                                          

 

                                                                     TRAN XUAN AN

 

 

 

 

 

GS. BU KE

(1914 1989)

(co hoc gia, dch gia, GS. ai hoc Van khoa Hue)

 

TOA KHAM S PHAP

               

(MOT TUY BUT VE S K, VA VAI NET BNH CHU)

 

     Trc Cach mang Thang tam nam 1945 [1885 1945 TXA. chua them (:ct)], tuy nc ta la mot nc quan chu, vua la bac ch ton, nhng that ra uy quyen kem han vien kham s.

      Di ong kham s, con co cac ong cong s, cac ong co van bo Lai, Ho, Binh, Hnh, Cong. Cac quan thng th cua ta muon lam viec g, nhat nhat eu phai gi dang ban en e ho xem trc. Ho co chap thuan mi c thi hanh, bang khong th phai gac lai. Cho en nhng quyen hanh nho mon nh bo dung mot vien tha phai hang bet hay chi tieu mot mon tien con con cung phai qua tay ngi Phap.

      Cai uy quyen o a tieu tan theo cuoc ao chanh Nhat Ban ngay 9.3.1945, con Toa Kham s Phap th phan ln a b o nat theo bom an trong cuoc chien tranh chong Phap, nhng can nha con lai th mai trut tng xieu, co cay hoang dai an lan t san trc en san sau, dien ra canh the lng sau hn 80 nam o ho [1862? 1945? TXA. ct.]. Nay Trng ai hoc S pham Hue c xay dng o.

      *@*

      Vien kham s Phap xuat hien tren at co o nay do ieu khoan 20 cua hiep c Giap tuat k ket ngay 15.3.1874 gia hai quan thieu tng uypre (Dupre) va Le Tuan, Nguyen Van Tng. Trong o khoan 15 nh rang: Nc Phap c at quyen lanh s cac ca be va cac thanh th e m ra cho ngoai quoc vao buon ban.

      Theo hiep c Giap tuat con co mot thng c na k ngay 30.8.1874. Cac ieu khoan 2, 6, 7 cua thng c nay cho vien kham s quyen xuat cang go lim, gao va t tam. The la bao nhieu san pham quy gia cua ta, ngi Phap co toan quyen mua e em ve x hay ban i cac nc khac.

      S cac quan ta, nhat la cac quan thng cang co the gay tr ngai, trong thng c nay con noi them: Vien kham s co quyen chap nhan hay khong chap nhan cac vien quan phuc vu tai cac hai cang m ra e giao thiep vi Phap. Nh vay co ngha la nhng ke nao chong oi lai ngi Phap co the b thai hoi hay oi i lam viec mot ni khac.

      Sau hiep c Giap tuat c k ket, ngay 15 thang 01 nam 1875, thng th hai quan Phap gi th cho thong oc Nam k  uypere, yeu cau e c mot ngi gi chc kham s e giao thiep vi Trieu nh Hue. Va uypere a c  Rayna e Etxa  (Rheinart des Essart), sanh ngay 01.11. 1840 , xuat than ai uy hai quan luc chien, tng lam tham bien tai Soai phu Sai Gon va cong s Ha Noi.

      Rayna i tren chiec thuyen Angtilop (Antilope) va ti Thuan An vao ngay 25 thang 7. Ben ta phai mot vien quan Bo Le ve Thuan An nghinh tiep, sau o a ve cong quan. Hai ngay sau, ong Rayna sang tham cac quan Thng bac (tc la quan Ngoai giao cua ta) va c thng th Nguyen Van Tng on tiep niem n. Cuoc bang giao ban au dien ra tot ep, (nh Rayna b om, vua T c lien cho ngi en hoi tham sc khoe) nhng ve sau, gia vien kham s Phap va Trieu nh Viet Nam tr nen thu han ch ch c hoi e hai lan nhau.

      Luc Rayna en Hue th Toa Kham s cha xay cat nen phai tam tru tai cong quan ma Trieu nh Hue dung e on tiep cac nha ngoai giao cac nc. Cong quan nay tuy bang tranh nhng cung kha ep, trc mat co cot c, chung quanh co tng, vien kham s ay vi Pri (Prieux), quan cai tr hang nhat, ophanh (Dauphin), th k, Xulie (Souliers), bac s, Phlri (Fleury), th lam banh m, om (Dhomps), quan gia, va mot vien chu S Cong chanh ra Hue e lo viec xay cat Toa Kham s. Luc bay gi Hue ch co may giao s va 7 ngi Phap ke tren la c phep lu tru ma thoi. Ngoai ra, trong S quan con co mot vien thong ngon, nhng ngi au bep va mot so t lnh eu la ngi Viet.

      Cong viec trc tien cua Rayna khi en Hue la chon at e lam Toa Kham. Trong thng c, co khoan noi rang: Chanh phu Viet Nam nhng khong cho Chanh phu Phap at ai can thiet e lam nha cho cac vien cong s hay nhan vien tuy tung . Tuy the, Trieu nh Hue ch bang long e cho Rayna s dung nhng manh at that xa thanh pho, lai am thap, c en mua ma th ngap nc. Nhng ni ma Rayna va y th cac quan ta lai khong thuan, lay c at ay la cua rieng nha vua hoac cua cac ong hoang ba chua, hay sap dung e xay cat en nay ai no v.v

      Rayna thay ta lam kho de, nen a quyet nh bao vi vien chu S Cong chanh Sambe (Sambert), cung vi nhng ngi giup viec en nha th Lch ai (gan ga Hue), ong noc nh lam ba Toa Kham s o. S Rayna lieu lnh xam pham ni th phung, nen Trieu nh Hue bang long cho manh at ni cong quan, ma Rayna hien ang tam tru. Manh at nay nam tai hu ngan song Hng, gan cau Trng Tien. Dan dan lau ai, dinh th lap len chung quanh vung nay va tao thanh mot khu vc mang ten la khu vc cua ngi Au (tuy goi the ch phan nhieu la cua ngi Phap).

      Toa Kham s chiem mot khoang at vao loi 200 thc vuong. Nhan cong (chng 30 ngi Trung Hoa) va vat lieu eu a t Sai Gon ra, ch tr voi va cat mua Hue. Lam tang di xong, luc xay tang tren, Rayna b cac quan ta phan oi v le Toa Kham dam vo le xay cao hn cung ien cua vua. Va khi lp mai nha bang nhng la kem th lai gay ra d luan cho rang ngi Phap s ta ban ai bac v mai nha nen khong dam lp ngoi [khong phai dan kinh o que mua, mac du trc vat lieu xay dng la ton kem, ma v ton kem rat nong bc oi vi ngi , nhng Phap van co chu ng (?) TXA. ct].

      Nhng ve sau moi tr ngai a c dan xep va Toa kham van lam theo hoa o a ve t trc.

      Rayna la mot tay thc dan hang nang, v the nen moi bat hoa gia ong vi Trieu nh Hue moi ngay mot tr nen tram trong. Nha cam quyen Phap thay rang neu e ong th bat li cho ng ngoai giao trong buoi ban s nen a ra lenh trieu hoi, khien ong khong kp d vao le khanh thanh Toa Kham s.

      *@*

      Ngi thay Rayna la Philat (Philastre). Ong en Hue vao ngay 14.12.1876. Qua en thang 7 nam 1878, Toa Kham hoan thanh va ph ton en mot trieu quan Phap.

      Trai vi Rayna, Philat to ra biet ieu hn, chang bao lau lai b thay. Ngi thay the ong khong ai khac hn la Rayna, co the ap ao Trieu nh Hue c.

       Tnh than thien Viet Phap a mat i t ngay Philat t gia co o Hue. Vua T c cung nh Rayna khong co thai o nhan nhng lan nhau, tnh the bong nhien tr nen cang thang. Co nhng van e g quan trong, Rayna phai kho khan lam mi vao yet kien vua T c c. Mot viec rac roi a xay ra khien vien kham s Phap khong bao gi quen: Rayna cung vi bac s Xulie i thuyen len Kim Long, luc tr ve th b quan lnh ta chan lai, buoc phai len bo i bang qua may canh ong e tr ve Toa Kham s, v vua Viet Nam ang cau ca tren song, thuyen cua ngi Phap khong the i ngang qua o.

      The roi vua T c gi hai phai oan sang Bac Kinh va Vong Cac e noi lai tnh giao hao vi hai nc a b Phap cat t.

      en cuoi thang nam 1880, Ton That Thuyet chuan b cuoc chong Phap va qua thang bay nam ay, vua ta ban hanh mot ao du noi rang: Nhng ke buon lau tien ong, ngay ca ngi Au cung vay, eu b phat trng.

      ao du nay khien ngi Phap het sc bat bnh. V theo hiep c a k gia hai nc th moi khi ngi Phap pham toi, ch co toa an Phap la co quyen x ho ma thoi, con cac quan ta khong co quyen cang noc ra, dung trng ma anh nh trong du a ban hanh.

      Cha u phng tien e gay han vi Trieu nh Hue, chnh quyen Phap lai mot lan na thay oi kham s. Palat Sampo (Palsme de Champeaux) thay the Rayna vao thang 10 nam 1880.

      Sampo la cu s quan hai quan, a tng giup viec tai Soai phu Sai Gon, biet tieng Viet va thong hieu tanh tnh, phong tuc cua dan ta. Ban au moi bang giao co the tng oi goi la t te, nhng chang bao lau moi bat hoa lai xay ra. Ngay 15.8.1881, Sampo ra Bac, nhng en nam 1883, sau khi Thuan An that thu, ong cung toan quyen Hatmang (Harmand) ve Hue ngh hoa va k ket hiep c.

      Trong thi gian Sampo ra Bac, lai van Rayna en thay the. Moi bat hoa san co nay tr nen sau am hn. Mot ngi giup viec Toa Kham s b quan ta bat giam. Rayna biet rang khong the dung phng phap thng lng e tien en viec o ho nc ta c, nen a viet th cho Tomxong (Thomson), thong oc Nam k, trong o co cau: Vi nhng cuoc thng thuyet, ta khong thau hoach c mot chut nhng bo nho mon nao; ch dung sc manh mi chiem c mot cai g ma thoi. Trong mot oan khac, ong lai viet: Nhiem vu cua vien kham s Hue con tr nen vo dung trong mot thi gian lau hn na, v ho ch nhng bo sc manh. Ve phan toi, toi se gap vo cung kho khan hn bat c mot ai e c hng oi chut nhng bo. Trong thi k au tien Hue, toi a co nhieu viec rac roi vi Trieu nh va t o vien thng th Bo Ho Nguyen Van Tng, luc nay oi vi nha vua la ngi rat co the lc, het sc cam thu toi, sau nhng vu bat hoa gia ong va toi.

      Luc nay lai xay ra may viec trong ai: Quan Phap chiem Nam nh va Hon Gay, khien d luan trong nc rat soi noi. Long cam thu ngi Phap soi len sung suc. Tomxong khuyen Rayna phai than trong trong khi ch ngi thay the, co the tam lanh xuong may chiec tau au gan Hue, nhng khong nen cat t day lien lac ngoai giao vi Chanh phu Viet Nam.

      Mac dau Tomxong a can dan, Rayna trc thi cuoc bien chuyen, trc nhng cuoc chuan b chien tranh cua ta, a qua quyet ri Hue ve Sai Gon. Ong ta en ni vao ngay 06.5.1883 tren chiec Paxvan (Patceval) cung vi ho s va tat ca nhan vien Toa Kham s. Vien thong oc Nam k ngac nhien het sc.

      Rayna ra i khong phai vi mot niem lu luyen, vi tiec ru tien a, tieng sam banh no vang nh phao ma vi mot thai o hung hang doa nat. Ong ta khoa ca Toa Kham lai, giao cha khoa cho cac quan Thng bac. Nhng cac quan ta khong nhan. Rayna hach dch nem cha khoa xuong at ma noi: T ay neu co mot s cp pha nho mon nao xay ra th Chnh phu Nam trieu phai chu trach nhiem.

      Thay Rayna ham hc ra i, Trieu nh Hue khong khoi lo ngai. V ngay nao con vien kham s o, chac ngi Phap cha dam anh vi chung ta. V neu xay ra chien cuoc th vien kham s co the lam nguy trong khi cha co quan lnh e ho ve. Nay Rayna vao Sai Gon biet au khong keo quan ra e gay s?

      Cha khoa ma Rayna bo lai, cac quan Thng bac cho cam en nh giao s Catpa (Caspar) gi ho, nhng ong nay t choi.

      Sau nhieu lan thng thuyet, Catpa chap thuan bien phap nay: Cha khoa bo vao trong mot cai trap e tai Toa Kham s. Ca ngoai khoa lai, niem phong t te, co mot hoi ong c 10 ngay en kham con niem mot lan. Giao s Catpa phai linh muc Rnon (Renauld) sung vao hoi ong nay.

      *@*

      Trong luc Toa kham vang bong vien kham s, nhng viec quan yeu khac lai xay ra. 

      Tai Bac k, quan ta hp tac vi quan Trung Hoa a chuyen t the hoa ra the cong. Tong oc Bac Ninh Trng Quang an, pho kinh lc s Bui An nien em binh ong huyen Gia Lam, keo sang anh thanh Ha Noi. Hoang Ta Viem sai Lu Vnh Phuc lam tien phong em quan ong phu Hoai c, chuan b tan cong quan Phap.

      Sang ngay 13 thang 4 nam 1883, ai ta Hanri Rivie (Henri Riviere) em 500 binh s tien anh vung O Cau Giay, b quan ta mai phuc chung quanh o ra giap chien. ai ta Rivie t tran, ai uy Bect Vile (Berthe de Villers) b thng. Tran nay binh s Phap va b chet va b thng vao loi 100 ngi.

      Vi cuoc that tran nay, Chanh phu Phap a phan ng bang cach gi sang quan tiep vien. Ha ngh vien Phap chap thuan bo ra mot ngan khoan 5 trieu ri quan e chi ph vao cong cuoc cp nc. Con ben ta th Trieu nh Hue a to chc nhng tiec vui, a ban thng nhng ngi tham chien.

      Viec nc ang tram phan rac roi, chien cuoc Viet Phap cha biet roi i en au th vua T c mat (16.6 nam Quy mui, 1883). Vua Duc c len ngoi ba ngay th b Ton That Thuyet va Nguyen Van Tng truat phe. Em vua T c la Lang quoc cong, huy Hong Dat, len noi ngoi, lay nien hieu la Hiep Hoa.

 

       Trong 3 ngi con, th T c thng yeu ng ang hn ca. ng Chan, mac du khong c thng yeu bang hai em, nhng v la con trng, mot l do chnh ang e c tha hng ngai vang. Va lai, luc bay gi, giac Phap ang gay chien, trong nc can phai co mot ong vua ln tuoi, nen Dc Tong Anh hoang e buoc long phai e di chieu giao ngoi bau lai cho ng Chan, lay nien hieu Duc c.

      Nhng khi e di chieu, vua T c lai noi en nhng tanh h tat xau cua hoang trng t, mac du Tran Tien Thanh [*], phu chanh ai than, Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet, ong phu chanh ai than, a dang s xin vua bo oan noi ve tanh xau cua t quan va may ch cha chac ng noi viec ln ( v tat nang ng ai s). Nhng vua khong nghe, cho rang nhng li trong di chieu nh ca mot tieng chuong canh tnh, se lam cho Duc c lo s ma thay oi tanh tnh (trch nguyen van bai viet khac cua GS. Bu Ke).

 

      [*] Tran Tien Thanh , sinh ngay 14.12.1813 {]. Trong luc oc di chieu, ong a khong oc, hay oc rat nho oan van noi xau vua Duc c. Do do, ong b Nguyen Van Tng va Ton That Thuyet hach toi. ng ve phe oi lap nen Tran Tien Thanh a b Ton That Thuyet phai lnh Phan Ngha, di quyen ieu khien cua Hng Hang, Hng Chc va Hng Te, en tai nha rieng Gia Hoi e am sat (em 30 thang 10 nam Quy v [1883]) (trch nguyen van bai viet va trch cua GS. Bu Ke).

 

      (Chung toi man phep trch ung nguyen van t mot bai viet khac, noi tren, ke ca chu thch ve Tran Tien Thanh, cua chnh GS. Bu Ke, c in trong cung mot cuon sach cua hoc gia hoang toc nay, [Chuyen trieu Nguyen, Nxb. Thuan Hoa, 1990, tr. 52] e chen vao ngay gia bai ma chung ta ang oc, nham lam ro hn y tng cua GS. Bu Ke.

      Va chung toi thay can noi ro them mot ieu rat tha ma Tran Trong Kim trong Viet Nam s lc (1921) a khang nh: Duc c thng xuyen i lai vi ngi Phap, than Phap:

      Bay gi Ong Rheinart lai sang lam kham s Hue [] lai nh ong Duc Dc ngay trc, khi vua Dc Tong hay con, thng hay i lai vi ngi Phap, bi vay vien kham s ngh en tnh cu (VNSL., Nxb. Tan Viet, ban 1964, tr. 566; Nxb. VHTT., ban 1999, tr. 594).

      Do o, bi tnh the bat buoc, hai v phu chnh Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet va nh than phai truat phe Duc c; truat phe Duc c mi co the ng au vi Phap, mi co the chong Phap c, mac du ai cung biet rang viec truat phe se gay ra tac dung phu la roi ren tam thi. Suy xet than trong, k lng hn, chung ta thay, t lau, luc con la hoang t, Duc c a b Phap mua chuoc; s mua chuoc t trc nay cong vi viec dien ra trc mat ma NTL.CB. IV ghi chep ro, la a 14 ten ngi rieng, [trong o co giao s Thien Chua giao], vao cung nh, vacac t tau cua cac quan th cac tnh tau len, co khi e trong ien mot em, van cha giao ra, mi la nguyen nhan chnh, ay Trieu nh lam vao canh roi ren). TXA.

 

      Thay Trieu nh Hue lam canh roi ren, ngi Phap cho rang o la mot c hoi tot e co the tan cong de dang hn. Thieu tng Bue (Bouet) anh Ha Noi, thieu tng Cuocbe (Courbet) th anh ca Thuan An. i cung Cuocbe co toan quyen Hatmang (Harmand) va cu kham s Trung k  Sampo, len Hue ngh hoa.

      Qua nhng ngay thng thuyet, en hom 23 thang 7 ban hoa c ra i, goi la hoa c Quy mui (1883). Pha Phap th Hatmang, Sampo, con pha ta th kham sai toan quyen Tran nh Tuc va pho kham sai Nguyen Trong Hiep [:Hp TXA. ct.] k ket vao hoa c. Ngoai cac khoan tc mat cac chu quyen cua ta ve ngoai giao, kinh te, chnh tr, [Phap con TXA. ct.] xen bt at ai (Bnh Thuan sap nhap vao Nam, t eo Ngang tr ra th at cong s cac tnh e kiem soat cac cong viec cua cac quan lai Viet Nam), Trieu nh Hue ch con lai von ven may tnh gia. Lai con co khoan minh nh rang: Vien kham s Phap khong nhng co ca quyen t do ra vao yet kien vua Viet Nam ma lai con co ca quyen sung vao Hoi ong C mat e kiem soat cong viec cua vua na.

      Sampo lai Hue e gi chc kham s.

      Tuy hiep c a k ket, vien kham s Trung k a tr lai, nhng cac quan ta van khong chu tha nhan canh bai vong va co tnh gay ra nhng noi kho khan nen Sampo trong luc to chc thng mai, thng chnh, thue khoa a vap phai nhieu tr lc.

      Va cac quan trong trieu, phe than thien vi Phap th t con phe chong lai th moi ngay moi gia tang. Hai vien ai than the lc van la Nguyen Van Tng, Ton That Thuyet. Hai ong nay a tng ra lenh bat giam may ngi Phap pham toi Thuan An, lai ngam phai Hau Chuyen va pho ma ang Huy Cat tuyen mo binh s, xay thanh ap luy Tan S (Quang Tr), phong khi that tran th di kinh o ra ngoai ay.

      Luc c chon len ke v vua Duc c, Lang quoc cong a tng to thai o e de, s set, khoc loc t choi ngai vang. V vua cung biet trc tnh the nguy nan, vao cai the tren e di bua, mot ben th ngi Phap moi luc mot kiem cach lan quyen, mot ben th hai v ai than Tng, Thuyet gi het quyen bnh, con vua khong co lay mot chut hau thuan. Nhng sau khi len ngoi, vua Hiep Hoa muon cau an e hng phu quy, tha nhan cuoc bao ho cua Phap, lai tm cach thoat khoi ap lc cua Tng, Thuyet bang cach da vao sc manh cua Phap. Vua a cho yet ban chieu an do Toa Kham s gi sang, lai con viet mat th, giao cho Hng Ky , con Tuy Ly vng a qua cho Sampo e cau vien. Bc th lot vao tay Nguyen Van Tng, Hng Ky b giam chet trong nguc. Ca gia nh Tuy Ly vng phai toi lu ay.

      Toi hom ha nguc Hng Ky (28.11.1883), vua Hiep Hoa cung b to cao la pham ph cong quy quoc gia, giam long trong cung, a ra phu Duc c, ep uong thuoc oc chet.

 

               Hong Dat, em ut cua vua T Dc, c chon e ton len ngoi nhng roi cung b phe v toi thong ong vi ngi Phap va tm cach mu hai hai v phu chanh (man phep trch nguyen van cua chnh GS. Bu Ke, Chuyen trieu Nguyen, sd., tr. 53, e chen vao gia bai viet nay, cung cua chnh hoc gia Bu Ke. TXA.).

 

      Sau khi vua Hiep Hoa mat, Kien Phuc len noi ngoi, luc ay mi 15 tuoi.

      Sampo s Toa Kham s co the  bat thnh lnh b tan cong, nen yeu cau Leja (Lejard), vien quan ch huy on Thuan An, gi them 50 binh s. Nh the Sampo co ca thay 150 quan va mot chiec phao ham au tren song Hng. Leja lai gi them cho Sampo 100 lnh trch trong so 550 lnh hien ong Thuan An.

      Mac dau hiep c a k ket, cac quan ta Bac co ngi chu giai giap nhng cung co lam ngi khong tuan lenh Trieu nh, co ngi t quan roi lai ng ra mo lnh e chong vi giac Phap.

      Cac quan ta thau thue cua dan dung e nuoi quan C en va luon luon xui giuc dan chung noi day. V the nen nhieu vien quan b Phap bat ay ra Con ao. Tinh than khang chien cua toan dan bung no, mac dau lc lng yeu t. Thnh thoang ta lai keo lnh en tap kch cac on binh Phap. Quan C en en nhuc ma, khieu khch. Quan Phap v cha nhan them quan tiep vien nen van l trong on, khong dam ra anh. The roi ta lot vao thanh pho Hai Dng, thieu huy nha ca, ch bua. Quan Phap ton that nang Bac Ninh.

      Nhng tin tc ay lam Trieu nh Hue phan khi nen a yeu cau Phap rut khoi Thuan An.

      Sampo tra ua bang cach khong tha nhan vua Kien Phuc, cat t moi lien lac vi Trieu nh Viet Nam, co thu trong Toa Kham s e ch vien binh. Tomxong phai mot chiec tau t Sai Gon ra Hue e ho ve cho Rayna; Cuocbe lai cho them vien kham s Phap hai chiec tau hang nhe va 200 binh s.

      Tuy a co quan tiep vien, nhng Sampo van nam trong tnh trang nguy ngap, v ben ta ang rao riet chuan b chien tranh.

      Tnh hnh ang cang thang th Bac k Phap nhan c quan tiep vien, anh chiem c tnh Sn Tay sau 3 hom giao phong (14, 15, 16 thang 12 nam 1883) va Hoang Ta Viem b that tran. Cac quan ta tam to thai o hoa hoan vi Phap v biet cha tien gay han.

      Gia luc ay Sampo xin t chc. Tricu (Tricou) luc bay gi ang Sai Gon, c c ra thay the va en Hue vao hom 28-12-1883.

      Ban au Tricu khong c phep vao Noi yet kien vua Kien Phuc. Nhng sau o hai ben a dan xep va Tricu lai c tiep kien trong mot buoi thiet trieu long trong.

      *@*

      mien Trung v la ni ong o cua Trieu nh Hue nen Phap con kieng ne, nhng Bac, mac dau co lc lng hung hau cua quan C en, Phap van muon ap dung chnh sach tam thc, mot khi co u binh lc th het anh tnh nay en anh tnh khac, co chiem tron ca lanh tho Bac k.

      Biet ro da tam cua Phap, nen ta lo ao ham ap luy, at chng ngai vat song Hng, m cac con ng len nui va nhat la chnh on lai Tan S, phong mot khi Phap tan cong va gi khong noi kinh o Hue th Trieu nh se chay ra nng nau o.

      Luc bay gi tuy cac tnh Trung chau Bac Viet nh Sn Tay, Bac Ninh, Hng Hoa, Tuyen Quang eu thuoc vao tay ngi Phap, nhng cac tnh vung bien gii nh Lang Sn, Cao Bang, Lao Kay quan Tau con chiem ong, khong chu tha nhan cuoc bao ho cua Phap Viet Nam.

      Moi ch roi ay, Phap can g, th mot c hoi tot ep a a en. Nguyen Phuocnie (Fournier), trung ta hai quan Phap, co quen than vi Ly Hong Chng, tong oc Trc le. Nam 1878, Phuocnie a tng Trung Quoc, luc ay Ly co mua may phao ham cua Anh, va Phuocnie ch cho Ly thay nhng cho h hong cua nhng chiec phao ham, nen Ly co thien cam vi Phuocnie va nh e ngh cho vien s quan nay trong coi mot ham oi cua thuy quan Trung Quoc. Nhan moi tnh than hu ay, Phuocnie gi th cho Ly Hong Chng e dan xep xch mch gia Phap va Trung Hoa Bac Viet. Ly Hong Chng la ngi trc kia a thuc giuc Chnh phu Bac Kinh xen vao chnh tnh Viet Nam va nh thi hanh chng trnh chia oi Bac Viet vi Phap. Nhng nay nhan thay binh lc cua Phap manh, co the gay ton that tren luc a Trung Hoa nen nhan li gap g Phuocnie e ngh hoa. ay la mot cuoc thng thuyet tay oi, khong co vien s than Phap Trung Hoa tham d v vien nay a b nha cam quyen Trung Hoa tay chay t lau.

      Trung ta Phuocnie en Thien Tan ngay 05.5 nam 1884 nh mot nha du lch. Ong ta a ra cho Ly mot dang ban hiep c va c vien tong oc Trung Hoa vui long chap nhan.

      Phuocnie anh ien e hoi y kien, Phap bang long cho Phuocnie toan quyen thng thuyet.

      Qua en ngay 11.5.1884, hiep c Phuonie Ly Hong Chng c k ket tai nha mon cua Ly, va gom co 5 khoan. Tu trung co hai khoan quan trong hn ca:

  1. Rut het quan oi Trung Hoa Bac Viet ve.

  2. Ton trong trong hien tai cung nh tng lai nhng hiep c k ket gia Phap va Trieu nh Hue.

      Hoa c k ket xong, trung ta Phuocnie ien cho tng Milo (Millot) Bac k biet ve viec quan Trung Quoc se phai keo ve nc.

      Cho rang tnh the co the tam yen, va the theo li yeu cau cua Chanh phu Viet Nam, Chanh phu Phap nh sa lai t hoa c Hatmang k ket ngay 23.7 nam Quy mui (1883).

      Tren con ng sang Bac Kinh, vien tan ai s Phap Patnot (Patenotre) a nhan c ien tn cua Chanh phu Phap sai ong en Hue e am nhan cong viec ay.

      T hoa c nay k ket tai Toa Kham s vao ngay 13 thang 5 nam Giap than (06.6.1884) gia Nguyen Van Tng, Pham Than Duat, Ton That Phan va Patnot. Khac hiep c trc cho tra lai Bnh Thuan va 3 tnh Ha Tnh, Nghe An, Thanh Hoa cho Trung k. Nhng khoan 5 lai noi en viec vien kham s Trung k ngoai viec c phep yet kien vua Viet Nam lai con c phep cung vi cac binh s thap tung ong Mang Ca trong Thanh Noi.

      Trong luc ban bac e k ket hiep c, co mot van e ma Phap muon giai quyet mot cach dt khoat: o la cai an ma vua nha Thanh giao cho vua Gia Long trong le tuyen phong.

      Theo hoa c Phuocnie Ly hong Chng , cai an ay khong co l do g ton tai na, Phap yeu cau Trieu nh ta gi an ay ve Phap e lam vat k niem.

      Ben ta quan phu chanh Nguyen Van Tng nhat nh khong chu. Sau cung i en s thoa thuan la cai an ay phai nau cho chay ra trc khi hai ben k ket hiep c. en gi a an nh, Nguyen Van Tng va cac quan Thng bac em an sang Toa Kham s, at len cai ban, trc mat Patnot. Gia phong ngi ta a bao th em lo be en chc san. Patnot lai mot lan na khan khoan xin cai an ay e gi ve Phap, va cac quan ta lai mot lan na cng quyet t choi.

      An nang 6 kilo bang bac ma vang, co khac may ch Viet Nam quoc vng chi an lan lan chay ra ong lai thanh mot khoi. Chieu hom ay th hai ben k ban hiep c. Rayna en Hue vi Patnot a lu lai at kinh k e nhan lanh chc kham s.

      *@*

      Tai Hue, chieu theo khoan 5 cua hoa c Patnot, vien kham s Rayna em quan vao ong Mang Ca, nhng b Trieu nh Hue can tr khong cho vao Thanh Noi.

      Ngay 10.6 nam Giap tuat (1884), vua Kien Phuc lam benh mat, lam vua c hn 7 thang.

      T trc en nay, cai chet cua vua Kien Phuc a neu len mot nghi an, mac dau trong s chep rang Kien Phuc chet v benh.

      Co thuyet cho rang vua b Nguyen Van Tng giet, lay le bnh tnh Kien Phuc khong lay g lam nang, lai chet mot cach ot ngot, nen co the la Nguyen Van Tng a bo thuoc oc vao thang thuoc cua vua.

       Nhng v sao Nguyen Van Tng lai am hai vua Kien Phuc? Sau ay cung lai la nhng gia thuyet:

  1. Ton That Thuyet va Nguyen Van Tng ong y giet vua Kien Phuc, ton mot v vua nho tuoi hn e de viec nam tron quyen bnh.

  2. Hai v quyen than cho rang hiep c Patnot, cac quan ta a nhan danh vua Kien Phuc e k ket vi Phap, neu vua Kien Phuc khong con na th hiep c se mat het hieu lc.

  3. Ban em, Nguyen Van Tng t tien vao trong cung nen b vua Kien Phuc la qu. Vua a noi vi Tng mot cau: Thay ng tng gm nha Nguyen khong sac.

      Sau khi vua Kien Phuc thang ha, hoang than, nh than ton ng Lch len ngoi, lay hieu la Ham Nghi, luc ay mi 12 tuoi.

       Ton vng tc v la mot viec het sc trong ai, the ma vien kham s Trung k khong c tham khao y kien. Rayna lay lam tc toi nen phan oi kch liet va khong cong nhan vua mi.

      Quan phu chanh Nguyen Van Tng bao cho vien kham s Phap biet rang hiep c Viet Phap khong bao gi e cap en viec lap vua can phai co s thoa thuan cua Chnh phu Phap. Nc khong the mot ngay khong vua, nen phai ton hoang t  ng Lch.

      Rayna e ngh ton Gia Hng vng, nhng hai phu chanh khong thuan, lay c vua Kien Phuc trc khi mat co di chieu ch nh ng Lch. Vien kham s van mot mc phan oi viec tan ton nay, cho rang vua Kien Phuc cha en tuoi trng thanh, di chieu ay khong co gia tr

      Tuy the, Rayna cung khong biet quyet nh the nao cho phai le nen gi ien van xin ch th Phap.

     

      Theo cach trien khai cac y tng, gia thuyet, s viec oan van viet ve cai chet cua Kien Phuc va ve am mu, quyet tam ton lap Gia Hng vng Hong Hu cua Rayna (Rheinart), GS. hoc gia Bu Ke a mac nhien cho chung ta thay cai lo gich (logic, logique) cua chuoi s kien. Lo gich nay ung vi NTL.CB. VI, tr. 150 151, tr. 176 178, (xin xem 2 trch oan phan phu luc t lieu chuan c). Chung toi a hn mot lan khang nh ro bang ngon t minh xac: Hong Hu am sat Kien Phuc theo y o cua thc dan Phap. Tuy nhien, ro rang NTL.CB. VI a khang nh Kien Phuc chet v benh tai phat (benh mi sap khoi lai tai phat thng la rat nguy kch, de dan en t vong). The th chung ta can c vao t lieu giam nh thc nghiem nao e khang khang ket luan?!? Do o, chung toi ch co the nhat tr vi 1 trong 2 ieu sau:

       1. Kien Phuc chet v benh tai phat rat nguy kch, ung nh NTL.CB. VI a ghi chep.

       2. Kien Phuc b au oc bi Hong Hu, (Hong Hu la ke ang ng nhat, theo lo gich cua chuoi s kien trong NTL.CB VI, va theo lo gch noi tren cua GS. Bu Ke), do mot loai chat oc ma cac quan ng y cua Thai y vien khong the giam nh y khoa c. Can lu y them: au oc nha vua la mot viec khong n gian (tham benh, bat mach, boc thuoc, sac thuoc, nang chen cho vua uong thuoc, ngay ca viec cm an, nc uong, ni , ging nam cua vua, eu co c che giam sat vi ngi chuyen mon giam sat tng li tng t).

      Hn na, cai goi la gia thuyet th vo cung, ai m at g cha c! Theo phng phap khoa hoc, cai goi la gia thuyet oi hoi phai c chng minh, va phai chng minh bang cac d lieu cu the, a c giam nh thc nghiem (tang chng, vat chng, nhan chng). Viet s, nghien cu s, hoac sang tac tieu thuyet, tuy but lch s, lam sao dam chep lai, a ra nhng gia thuyet khong mot chut bang c, tham ch co gia thuyet ngay ngo nh vay! Neu a a ra gia thuyet th phai chng minh ngay, tiep theo ngay vao oan van chep lai gia thuyet ay, bang khong la a can toi hnh s, cho du vo tnh hay hu y : toi gieo nghi an cho ngi khac. Ke thu chang mong g hn la li dung c tat ca tin, kha canh tam l trong mot xa hoi co mau thuan giai cap mac du thong nhat y ch chong ngoai xam va thoi i tieng lanh on gan nhng tieng d on xa, e gieo c nghi an ve ngi chung cam han! o la cha ke en thu oan cau khach cua cac cay but thuoc loai ngoi le oi mach vi cac chuyen tham cung b s, thi nao cung b theu det. Chung toi xin phep c nhan manh: Bat k thi nao ngi i cung hao hc, them khat trong viec theu det, nghe ngong, hong ht, on ai cac loai b s. Va ke thu a li dung triet e loai tam a thuoc dang thoi i rat phi chnh tr, rat the s nay.

      Chung toi xin c man phep hoc gia Bu Ke e oc va bnh chu tac pham tuy but lch s nay cua ong. Vang, xin man phep goi la tuy but lch s , mac du GS. la chuyen gia ve ch Han, dch gia Phap van, vi bang liet ke sach bao tham khao that co sc nang.

     

      [Va, xin m nho mot ngoac n lac e ay: la ngi thuoc the he hoc tro cua hoc tro GS. hoc gia Bu Ke, chung toi rat thong cam vi nhng ai t nhan xng, cac cum t mieu ta, thuat s kha trung tnh cua ong trong bai viet ma ban than chung toi cung co lan pham phai khi goi mot nhan vat phan dien cua Sechxpia [W. Shakespeare] la ong. Ay la toi mat lap trng, nh GS. Bu Ke goi Rayna, Sampo, Cuocxy bang ong; hoac, khac vi van hoa Viet trong ng x van hoa gia ngi Viet vi nhan vat yeu nc Viet, GS. goi 2 nha yeu nc bang 2 cai ten coc loc: Tng, Thuyet; tham ch thuat cuoc khang chien Bac k, cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi cua ta bang ong t gay han chang han. Va v the, hoi o, chung toi a suyt b anh rt khi bao ve luan van c nhan s pham]. TXA.

 

      Chanh phu Phap khong muon sinh chuyen loi thoi, nen anh ien van phuc ap, ra lenh cho tng Milo a ngay mot trung oan en Hue, vao kinh thanh tan phong vua Ham Nghi.

      ai ta Gherie (Guerrier), tham mu trng cua Milo, nhan lanh s menh nay, em theo 600 binh s va 2 phao oi.

      Luc Gherie en ni th ca thanh ong kn, khong vao c. Nhng ben trong khong co ve chuan b e khang c.

      Quan phu chanh Nguyen Van Tng khong chu bao quan lnh m ca, thoai thac rang ban hiep c Viet Phap can thng thuyet lai va quan Phap khong co quyen vao ong trong hoang thanh.

      ai ta Gherie ap lai: Hiep c Patnot bao gi cung co hieu lc, va hen trong 12 tieng ong ho neu ben ta khong nhng bo th ban ai bac vao ai noi.

      Ngay 15.8.1884, vao luc 03 gi chieu, sap het han a an nh trong toi hau th, Nguyen Van Tng va may quan C mat than hanh qua Toa Kham s bao cho Rayna va tng Gherie biet la Chanh phu ta thuan theo cac ieu khoan trong hiep c va xin phep lap vua Ham Nghi.

      Ban xin phep viet bang ch Nom, Rayna khong thuan, buoc phai dung ch Han. Trong cau chuyen, vien kham s co y doa ngam rang: Ong ta co the a hai quan phu chanh Nam trieu ra trc toa an quan s ve nhng hanh ong bat than thien va trai hiep c.

        ai ta Gherie muon hoa giai, nen on ton bao vi cac quan ta la ngay hom sau, ong se sang tan phong vua Ham Nghi.

      Thay ben ta nhng bo, Gherie ch cho Nguyen Van Tng i roi, lien em quan ve Mang Ca, keo c Phap len, ong quan e chan ni hiem yeu cua quan ta.

      Chung ta khong khoi ngac nhien, khi thay Nha Cam quyen Phap cung nh vien kham s ep buoc vua Viet Nam phai nhan le tan phong cua ngi Phap, mot ieu ma trong hiep c khong bao gi noi en. Khoan 5 cua hiep c ngay 06.6.1884 ch noi rang: Vien kham s ai dien Chanh phu Phap, chu toa cac lien lac ngoai giao ieu hanh cong cuoc bao ho nhng khong can thiep vao noi tr tai cac tnh a an nh khoan 3 (tc la cac tnh t bien gii Nam Viet [luc tnh Nam k TXA. ct.] en a gii tnh Ninh Bnh). Vien kham s se trong kinh thanh Hue cung vi cac oan tuy tung quan s, co quyen lay t cach rieng e yet kien vua Viet Nam.

      Vi au oc thc dan, ngi Phap ch rang trc kia, than phuc Trung Hoa, vua Viet Nam phai tho phong vua Trung Hoa, nay chu bao ho cua Phap, th phai nhan le tuyen phong cua Phap. Co nh the ho mi xen vao noi tnh cuaViet Nam c.

      Ngay 17.8.1884, vao luc 09 gi sang, ai ta Gherie, kham s Rayna, thuyen trng chiec tau Tat (Tarn) em 25 s quan va 160 binh s vao ai noi e lam le tan phong. Gherie, Rayna va vien thuyen trng i ca gia, khong mang theo vu kh, 60 binh lnh va s quan i ca hai ben, con nhng ke khac ng chc ngoai. Vao en ien Thai Hoa, Gherie at len cai ban trc ngai vang huy chng bac au boi tinh.

      Le xong, khi oan ngi ra ve, en Ngo mon th ca gia a ong lai, phai i ca hai ben e ra ngoai.

      Nh tren a thay, theo hiep c Patnot th vien kham s Trung k c coi nh la quan thng th Ngoai giao cua Viet Nam. Do o, ng loi ngoai giao Trung cung nh Bac eu le thuoc vien kham s Trung k. Milo, trong coi Bac k, luc bay gi la mot vien trung tng, con Rayna th ch mi ai uy. Mot vien ai uy khong the nao lai gi mot chc vu co the ieu khien mot vien trung tng c, v the nen Chanh phu Phap trieu vien quan vo Rayna ve va bo sung mot vien quan van thay the.

      Mot ien van gi t Phap hom 30.8.1884 c Lme (Lemaire), tong lanh s Thng Hai, gi chc kham s Trung k, va yeu cau en nhiem s gap.

      Lme nhan c ch th bao phai co thai o on hoa vi Trieu nh Hue nhng cung ng e b lan ap.

      Lme en Hue ngay 10.10.1884 vi trong trach to chc nen cai tr Bac Viet va ieu hanh cong cuoc bao ho Trung Viet. Nhng ch trong nom ve phng dien  hanh chanh ma thoi, con quan s th van thuoc cac s quan Phap.

      Khong chu tha nhan che o bao ho va k ket, Nguyen Van Tng va Ton That Thuyet, ben ngoai gia v t te, nhng lai cho at sung chung quanh hoang thanh va khu kinh thanh. ai ta Pecno (Pernot) lai bao cao chuyen o vi tng Brie Lisl (Briere de LIsle). Cac vo quan Phap mi ban bac vi nhau to chc nhng cuoc tap tran va ca ngay lan em keo quan i chung quanh thanh e dieu vo ging oai.

      Trieu nh Hue phan khang vi vien kham s, cho rang nhng cuoc dieu hanh va tap tran ay a lam nao ong nhan tam kinh o Hue.

      Sau cung hai ben thoa thuan: quan oi Phap dep han cai loi khieu khch ham doa ay, con ben ta th cat het nhng khau sung, nhat la nhng khau ang ha hong cha sang Toa Kham s.

      Tuy ai bac a triet ha, nhng Nguyen Van Tng va Ton That Thuyet van cho van tai sung ong, lng thc ra Tan S, gi mat th cho cac quan Bac Ha yeu cau thu thue, thu thoc ve kinh o e phong ng chien tranh. 

      Ta lai gi mua Hng Cang 6.000 thc xch sat hang ln, vi muc ch giang ngang cac ca be, ca song, khien nhng luc co chien tranh, tau Phap khong tien vao kinh k c. Cuoi thang 3, luc hang ve, mot chiec tau cam c c b phao ham cua Phap chan bat, cho rang nhng day xch ay co muc ch quan s.

      Cac quan Thng bac phan oi kch liet, lay c rang cac oi long thuyen va hai tuan dng ham c nho cua Viet Nam rat can en nhng si day xch ay. Vien kham s bang long k giay cho nhap noi.

      Lme la mot ngi co kinh nghiem ve ng ngoai giao. Trong nhng cuoc tranh chap gia ta va ngi Phap, Lme a x tr mot cach khon kheo.

      Mot s quan Phap b mot ngi trong hoang toc che nhao. Y noi cau anh mot bat tai. Vien kham s a trng phat s quan o e lay long ngi Viet.

      Nhng en viec th hai th Lme vap phai s chong oi cua bon Phap ng nganh.

      May ngi thuy thu cua chiec tau Lion (Lionne) au tai ca Thuan An b mat cap, vien vo quan ch huy chiec tau ay la Hennt (Hennique) vao trong lang lung bat vien l trng roi dung roi e anh.

      Chanh phu ta phan khang vi vien kham s, Lme gi giay khien trach Hennt. Vien s quan nay khong nhan loi, a viec ay ra Ha Noi. Tng Brie Ha Noi benh vc Hennt, the roi khong ben nao nhng bo ben nao. Cuoi cung vien thng th hai quan Phap phai ng ra can thiep, nhng lai can thiep mot cach rat thc dan. Hennt nguyen chc ai uy hai quan c thang len ham trung ta.

      Thay ro s chong oi gia cac nha cai tr va quan s Phap Viet Nam, Trieu nh Hue mi thao mot giac th nh Lme gi thang cho Chanh phu Phap, gom may khoan, ai khai:

  1. Hiep c Patnot cha c phe chuan ma 2.000 hay 3.000 lnh Phap a chiem ong Mang Ca. Khoan 5 cua hiep c nay can phai sa oi, ngha la on binh cua vien kham s phai ong ngoai thanh e khoi pham en uy quyen cua vng trieu va cung e khoi lam cho dan chung s hai.

  2. Nhieu vien cong s Bac k a x t, x phat trng, phat xuy (anh bang gay va roi), phat tien cac quan tnh hoac phu, huyen.

  3. Cac tau Phap kiem soat qua chat che cac ghe thuyen cua Viet Nam. Tai cac tnh, viec gi ghe thuyen qua lau lam hai cho nen thng mai.

  4. V dung cng quyen e ap bc, Trieu nh Hue phai huy an phong vng cua vua Trung Quoc. Bac cua cai an ay tr gia 240 ong Me Tay C. Le ra phai gi tra lai cho Bac Kinh, ch khong nen em phan chia cho cac s quan tham d trong buoi le hom ay.

  5. Vien C mat oi cac th thue nha phien [ay la chi tiet lch s cu the, hau qua cua thu oan ngc ngao boc lot chien ph cua thc dan Phap hoi 1862 ; mot i khong tr lai! TXA. ct.], thue mo va cac th thue khac.

      Khoan 2 trong bc giac th a to cao nhng hanh vi tan nhan cua cac vien cong s Bac k hoi o. Chnh Rayna cung a xac nhan la viec co that. Nhieu quan phu, huyen b bat coc hay b giet. Ha Van Quan, tong oc Hai Dng, b ay ra Con ao v toi chong Phap.

      Cac s quan Phap rat tc toi khi thay ke ai dien cho nc Phap tai Hue cung ong y vi ta iem o.

      Trong khi ay, Nguyen Van Tng gi thong t cho cac quan ngoai Bac, ngan cam khong cho giup ngi Phap trong viec mo lnh va phu khuan vac, v cho rang Brie   Lisl tuyen lnh phao thu 2 ai oi la trai vi hiep c.

      Nhng s chong oi cua hai quan phu chanh, nhat la Ton That Thuyet, a lam cho Chnh phu Phap bat bnh. Phrayxine (Freycinet), bo trng Bo Ngoai giao Phap, gi giay cho kham s tai Hue yeu cau tm cach trng phat Ton That Thuyet, khong cho a v ay na va bat ay i mot ni khac.

      Cung nh Philat, Lme khong c thng cap tin cay, v to ra on hoa vi Trieu nh Viet, lai khong het long bao ve che o thuoc a, khong tm cach lan ap quyen hanh cua dan b tr. V the nen ngay 12.4, thng th Bo Binh Phap bo nham Ruxen Cuocxy (Roussel de Courcy) sang Viet Nam vi nhng quyen hanh het sc rong rai. Cac vien kham s Hue va Bac eu thuoc di quyen ieu khien cua vien tng nay.

      Trong cuoc tranh chap gia quan s va hanh chanh, ta thay quan s a thang the. Nam k b tach ri va coi nh la thuoc a cua Phap, ta ch con lai Trung va Bac. Trc kia, Lme, mot vien chc hanh chanh ai dien cho Phap e giao thiep vi Trieu nh Hue, quyen hanh ln hn cac kham s va cac quan binh Bac. Nay Phap lai a sang mot tng lanh ma Lme co bon phan phai phuc tung. Nh the vien kham s Hue, khong con la v ai dien cua Chanh phu Phap na, ma ch ai dien cho tng Cuocxy ma thoi.

      Tng Cuocxy chu trng bnh nh Bac k trc, kiem cach ngan can e Trieu nh Hue khong the nao thuc giuc dan chung Bac Viet noi len c na, roi uy hiep Trung Viet sau.

      Tng Cuoxy en Bac k vao hom 31.5.1885, lien cho chiec tau Pluvie (Pluvier) vao Hue on Lme ra hoi cong viec.

      Lme bat bnh ve viec Chanh phu Phap at tng Cuocxy lam thong oc quan vu kiem tong thong toan quyen, khien ong mat het quyen bnh, nen sau khi gap tung Cuoxy Ha Noi va trnh bay cong viec xong, ong lien ban giao, xin t chc va khong tr lai Hue na.

      Sampo c c gi chc kham s, ai dien cho Cuocxy Hue.

      Tng Cuocxy c chnh phu Phap giao pho quyen hanh het sc rong rai. Ngoai viec thong lnh tat ca binh quyen Trung va Bac, ong con nam ca quyen chnh tr cua ca 2 x.

      Chnh sach cua Phap bay gi la sau khi chiem Nam k lien lan ra Bac, va bnh nh Bac xong se uy hiep Trung k. Ni ay co vua, co Trieu nh va mot binh lc tng oi hung hau hn cac mien khac. Nhng sau khi sang ong Dng, c bao cao ro ve hai vien phu chanh Tng va Thuyet ang chuan b e tan cong Phap, tng Cuocxy nh anh manh mot on vao Hue e lam tan ra chanh quyen cua Viet Nam roi dan da dung vo lc e bnh nh Bac k sau.

      Ngay 26.6.1885, t Ha Noi tng Cuocxy gi ien van ve cho Thng th bo binh Phap: Toi mang trong long nhng noi cam hn oi vi cac v phu chanh. Toi se hanh ong than trong nhng cng quyet. anh ien ve Hue cho biet, neu Bo chong lai viec dung vo lc.

      Khong ng Bo Chien tranh khong chap thuan viec gay chien vi Trieu nh Hue. Tuy vay, tng Cuocxy van quyet hanh ong theo y cua mnh bang cach tao ra c hoi e a en viec dung bao lc.

      Tng Cuocxy ban bo lenh gii nghiem, em ra Hue 800 lnh A Rap do tieu oan trng Metdinge (Metzinger) ch huy va 154 khinh binh.

      Sampo bao tin cho Trieu nh Hue biet e chuan b viec nghinh tiep. Cuocxy muon en Hue mot cach oai ve e moi ngi thay ro uy quyen cua mnh va cung e ham doa hai quan phu chanh.

      Ngay 19-5 nam At Dau (1-7-1885), tng Cuocxy en Thuan An. Ben pha ngi Phap co Sampo va may vien van vo quan, ben ta hai v ai than i on va co quan lnh dan hau.

      Cac ca thanh eu treo c va khi tau cap ben ta ban 19 phat sung e chao mng.

      Ve en Toa Kham, Cuocxy mat ngh vi Sampo va cac tng lanh nh mu bat Ton That Thuyet. Mu o rat gian d, giong kieu Ton Quyen mi Quan Van Trng sang pho hoi va chan bat. Nhng c mu ay b nhng ngi boi bep trong Toa Kham tiet lo ra ngoai.

      Vi hanh ong ngang trai nay, tng Cuocxy da vao y kien cua Phrayxine, bo trng Bo Ngoai giao Phap. Phrayxine a tng gi ien van cho vien kham s Hue, khuyen cao nen trng phat Ton That Thuyet, khong nhng bai chc ma con oi i xa.

      Luc tng Cuocxy en Hue, mang theo binh lc, Trieu nh Hue khong khoi lo ngai.

      Ton That Thuyet voi en dinh Nguyen Van Tng e ban bac.

      Tng noi:

      Quan ln la kim chi ngoc diep, le tat nhien la phai het long het sc ton phu xa tac. Con toi, mac du la ke bach tnh, nhng cung biet v quoc vong than. Nhng quan ln khong ngh rang: Neu gay viec can qua, biet au chung ta se khong that tran? Gia nh thanh tr kien co, van khong chong noi ai bac cua giac Tay. Va roi that thu Thuan An, nhan tam xao xuyen, vang bac tieu tan. Neu anh nhau, thanh thng khong khoi kinh tam, quan lnh s khong het long chien au. Hay la chung ta th em tien bac, at ai ma nhng cho bon chung? Nhng neu quan ln tin chac rang quan ta co the uoi c giac, em lai canh thai bnh th tuy quan ln nh lieu, toi khong dam ban en.

      Nghe Nguyen Van Tng a ra nhng luan c ay, tuy ung vi tnh trang hien thi, nhng luc bay gi bau nhiet huyet cua Thuyet ang hang, lai b don vao the b, biet rang cac tng lanh cao cap Phap hien ang co kiem cach ham hai mnh. Va lai, [trc TXA. ct.] chnh sach tam thc tham lam cua Phap, dau ta co oi x on hoa cung khong sao thanh cong c. V the Ton That Thuyet a bat bnh ap lai:

      An cm vua, phai tra n nc, huong chi cam binh quyen trong tay, neu e giac Tay chiem ham thanh tr thi con au na vang bac thue ma? Toi nhat quyet ng au vi giac, dau sau nay ra sao cung anh. V vay toi nh ra lnh cho cac vo quan va binh s phai chuan b san sang chien au.

      Sau cuoc am luan, hai quan phu chanh chia tay, nhng trong long a bat au thieu s ong tam nhat tr.

      Tng De Cuocxy a giay mi cac hoang than, cac quan C mat sang d tiec tai Toa Kham s e ban viec trieu yet vua Ham Nghi cung e trnh quoc th. Trong so quan khach en d, ngi ta thay vang bong quan e nh phu chanh.

      Va nhap tiec, Cuocxy lien nang coc, cau chuc hai nc c thnh vng, oan noi tiep:

      Neu quy quoc muon c yen on th trong vong 3 ngay phai nap chien ph cho chung toi la 20.000 thoi vang, 200.000 thoi bac va 200.000 quan tien. Chung toi vui mng thay cac ngai en ay ong u. Nhng sao quan phu chanh Ton That thuyet lai vang mat? Hay la quan phu chanh nha e sa soan anh chung toi?.

      Mot v ai than tm cach noi : Da, quan phu chanh cua chung toi b benh nen khong sang c.

      Cuocxy len cao giong trch thng: Neu b benh cung phai vong en. The nao chung toi cung cho ngi en nha e bat!.

      Cac quan nghe noi thay eu ngao ngan. Con cuoc ban bac viec trieu yet vua Ham Nghi th khong mang en ket qua nao ca. C mat vien yeu cau: Luc vao ai noi, ch co tng Cuocxy i ca gia, cac quan theo hau eu i ca  hai ben, khong mang theo vu kh. Luc len ien Thai Hoa, bc vao ngang hang cot th nh, phai dng lai, a quoc th cho mot vien ai than dang len vua.

      Tng Cuocxy bac bo nhng li e ngh ay, buoc vua Viet Nam phai tiep ong ta, nhan quoc th xong roi mi ngoi tren ngai vang. Con viec vao ca Ngo Mon th ong noi mot cach hong hach: Khong nhng cac quan theo toi, ma ngay ca quan lnh cung i ca gia.

      Cuoc ban bac cha xong th tng Cuocxy yeu cau hoan lai, i luc nao Ton That Thuyet bnh phuc se hay.

      Ve phan Nguyen Van Tng th ong a phan khang vi tng Cuoc xy la binh s Phap an mac loi thoi, hay pha phach, nen yeu cau cam ch khong cho ho vao Thanh Noi na.

      Tiec tan ra ve, Nguyen Van Tng lien i ngay en Bo Binh, gap Ton That Thuyet, em t s thuat lai, va noi: en nc nay, chung ta khong sao chu noi, thoi anh lieu may rui vi tri.

      Ton That thuyet cung gian run len, bao vi Tng rang:

      Binh lnh cua chung ta eu a san sang, ch can hanh ong gap e bon chung khong kp tr tay. Ngoai Bac chung a chiem c Tuyen Quang, Cao Bang, Thai Nguyen, nay en ca Thuan. Neu ta bo tay ngoi nhn giac Tay hoanh hanh th con g la c nghiep na! Toi sap at the nay: Mat tien quan he hn ca th a co lnh Long Thuyen, Vo Sinh, eu tinh thong vo nghe. Trong hoang thanh do lnh Cam Y va Kim Ngo chong gi. Bon mi tuyen cho ong pha sau. Ca ong Ba co 5 ve, ong doc ve thang Trng nh. Tai ca An Hoa co 5 ve, ca Hau, 5 ve. Ca Ta co ve Ho Oai, chon la nhng a thien chien. Ca Chnh Tay a co oi Hung Nhue gi. Trong va ngoai thanh eu co voi, moi con 2 nai, sung ai bac bo tr khap ni. Ben kia song, pha trc lau s, lnh Long Thuyen, Phan Ngha chuan b san, he nghe hieu lenh la xung phong vao cac trai e tan sat lnh Phap.

      Hai quan phu chanh mat am moi viec on thoa, ch ch c hoi la thc hien.

      *@*

      Cuoc bang giao Viet Phap i lan en cho sup o. Ve pha Viet Nam nh ta thay, chuan b chien cuoc t lau. Trieu nh cung nh s phu, dan chung eu muon anh uoi quan Phap ra khoi at nc, nhng t lieu lc lng, thay kho ch noi nen phai an nhan e ch thi. Nay nh thuoc no b cham ngoi, tc long nen phai no; Ton That Thuyet lo s, cha biet quan Phap en bat mnh luc nao; nen suot ca ngay 21 va 22 thang 5 nam At dau (03 04.7.1883), hai quan phu chanh chuan b cong viec hoan tat. Muon tang gia sc lc chien au, Ton That Thuyet ra lenh m rong ca nha lao, chat xieng, thao gong, tha toi cho cac pham nhan, cho bon chung tien bac, cm ru va du bon chung cam kh gii quyet tam giet giac.

      Cong cuoc sa soan nam trong vong quan c b mat. Tuy the, Giam muc Catpa van biet c va tin bao cho tng Cuocxy hay. Cuocxy t phu binh s, sung ong cua mnh nen xem thng, khong buon lu y. V the cuoc khi ngha cua ta a gay cho Phap t nhieu thiet hai.

      Thai o khieu khch cua Cuocxy a bieu lo mot cach ro ret. Cac tang pham cua vua va nh than em qua bieu, Cuocxy t choi tra lai.

     *@*

      em 22 thang 5 (04.7), nhan dp en Hue, tng Cuoc- xy m tiec khoan ai cac van vo s quan Phap Hue.

      Hnh nh cuoc tan cong Toa Kham nh vao mot gi sm hn, nhng v cong cuoc sap at cha hoan b nen mai en luc trang len, ngha la luc 12 gi 40 mi bat au khi s. Nhng khau ai bac at san tren thanh cha ra cau Thanh Long va song ong Ba, ch cac s quan d da yen tr ve se ban vao ho e tan sat. Nhng v cuoc tan cong b cham tre thanh th cac s quan eu tr ve on bnh an vo s. Tuy the, ve sau, ngi Phap van goi cau Thanh Long la cau mu sat (Pont de LAttentat).

      Quan so cua Phap luc bay gi gom co: Tai Mang Ca, hai ai oi bo binh cua ngi Phi chau, 3 trung oi thuy quan luc chien; tai khu at nhng a trong thanh gan Mang Ca: 2 oi lnh Phi chau, 1 trung oi thuy quan luc chien va phao oi; tai Toa Kham: 2 ai oi thuy quan luc chien; pha bac Mang Ca co 2 phao ham Javrin (Javeline) va Brionvan (Brionval) va mot chiec tau nho. Tong cong  ca thay 31 s quan, 1.387 binh s va 17 co ai bac.

      Sau buoi da hoi nao nhiet, quang canh lan lan tr lai yen tnh. 11 gi 30 ai nay eu ra ve.

      Toa Kham va Mang Ca ang chm am trong giac ngu. Bong nhien vang len tieng ai bac va tieng reo ho vang day. Nhng trai lp tranh cua lnh b nhng bo uoc cua quan ta xung phong vao ot, boc chay d doi. Hang hai nhat la lnh Phan Ngha, tc la lnh cua Ton That Thuyet mo lam tay chan, cung nhng pham nhan lao Tha Thien va lao Tran Phu c tha ra e ai cong chuoc toi. Ho mang sung hoac ai ao, ma tau, mnh tran trung truc, toc bo xoa xuong ngang goi. ao quan anh vao Toa Kham do Ton That Liet, em cua Thuyet, cung quan thuy s o oc, thuy s hiep l ch huy, con canh quan anh vao Mang Ca th e oc Tran Xuan Soan va Ton That Thuyet t than hanh oc suat. Mot vien ai bac t phao ai ta tren ca thanh ban sang lam thung mot lo ln tren noc Toa Kham. Tng va mai eu b xuyen an. Nha kho, nha ve sinh sup o va boc la. ai uy Bruyno (Bruneau), phao binh hai quan, b mot vien an xuyen qua ngc, nga ra chet, ai uy Bruanh (Brouin) cua oi binh chau Phi gay mat hai ong chan, t tran. Hai s quan Hetsen (Heitschell) va Lacroa (Lacroix) b thng nang.

      Quan Phap a bao ve c kho kh gii, an dc va lng thc. Nhng quan trang th b chay sach en noi vien tieu oan trng Metdinge suot ca ngay 5.7, ch mac co mot cai quan ui, mai en toi mi kiem c mot cai quan dai, nhng lai thieu keo, phai dung en dao e ht bt cho va.

      Do mot cai ca an thong qua trai, 160 binh s cua Phap keo vao Toa Kham. Chnh tng Cuocxy a ieu khien toan quan nay, at moi ca so 2 ngi ban ra e chan ng nhng t xung phong cua lnh Viet.

      Mot ieu may man cho Phap la Nha Bu ien cach Toa Kham vao loi 300 thc khong b h hai g ca, nen tng Cuocxy cho anh ien goi lnh Hai Phong cap toc vao Hue va goi lnh Thuan An keo len.

      Ban au sung ai bac cua ta ban khong lay g lam trung ch, nhng ve sau a tan pha c nhieu ni, lam thung tran, sap vach. Ca Toa Kham rong ln ch con lai mot gian phong chnh la ng vng.

      Tai Mang Ca, sau nhng phut kinh hoang a qua, trung ta Pecno va thieu ta Metdinge chia quan phan cong anh chiem kinh thanh. Sung ai bac Phap cha ban vao cac o sung cua ta. Hai phao ham, nh co anh la cua nhng tup nha b chay nen a ban trung vao mat ong bac cua kinh thanh. Quan Phap Mang Ca, keo vao tap trung khu at ma ta a nhng cho Phap t mot nam nay, roi chia thanh 3 toan keo i tan cong cac nga, tien vao Thanh Noi. Quan ta khang c rat hang nhng sau 1 tieng ong ho th rut lui va tan ra hang ngu. Phap chiem c 6 co ai bac hang ln at tren mat thanh roi dung lai nhng khau sung nay e ban lai quan ta.

      Tri gan sang, chien cuoc van tiep dien d doi nhng quan ta the yeu c lui dan. Phap ot hai bo, Lai va Binh, la cho cua Tng va Thuyet va cac cong th, cac trai lnh. Gap dan chung chay loan, khong phan biet gia tre trai gai, eu tan sat mot cach rung rn, tieng la khoc vang tri day at.

      08 gi 30 sang, tren k ai ta a phat ph la c Phap. Tieng goi la c nhng k that la si day that lng cua mot ten lnh Phi chau ket vi hai manh vai.

      09 gi th quan Phap vao ai noi, quan ta rut ra khoi hoang thanh.

      Pecno phai dung en 1 tieu oan canh gac cung ien, e khoi b cp pha. Tuy the, cac ien ai, dinh th khac trong hoang thanh, suot 48 tieng ong ho b quan Phap ra tay v vet. Phan nhieu trong tui ten lnh Phap nao cung co nhng nen bac cp c cua kho ta. Mot phong vien cua Hang Ava (Havas) a noi rang chnh ong a mua c cua cac ten lnh ay 08 kilo bac nen ca thay. Ong lai con cho biet suot trong 5 ngay, 50 ngi chuyen viec sap xep cac bao vat co gia tr khong the tng c e a ve Phap.

      Theo s c lng cua Phap th quan so cua ta trong tran chien gom 20.000 ngi, t tran 1.200 en 1.500 ngi.

      Ve pha Phap: 02 s quan va 09 binh s chet; 02 s quan va 04 binh s b t thng; 05 s quan va 71 binh s b thng.

      Phap con lay cua ta c so vo kh quan trong: 812 khau ai bac, 16.000 sung tai vo kho, vo so sung trng, gm giao trong Noi.

      Cong cuoc sa soan chien tranh, hai quan phu chanh giau kn, khong e cho vua Ham Nghi va Tam Cung biet. Ti khi thay ro s that bai, luc ay mi tau vi vua va Tam Cung hay, nhng o loi cho ngi Phap gay chien trc [s that ung nh vay: Phap khch tng (ban tin bat Ton That Thuyet) va khieu khch Trieu nh (ban le trieu yet, t choi tang pham, oi chien ph mot cach ngc ngao, trch thng TXA. ct.].

      Hai quan phu chanh pho vua va Tam Cung ra Quang Tr. Khi xa gia ngang qua Kim Long, Tng ghe vao nha th Kim Long noi chuyen vi giam muc Catpa roi tr ve hp tac vi Phap. Co ngi che trach Tng la gian hung (*), co ke lai cho rang: Viec Tng lai la co dung y e lam noi cong cho Thuyet ve sau. Cung v the nen ngi Phap khong nhng khong tin dung lai con lu ay ra Con ao, Tahiti va chet luon ay (30.7.1886). 

      en Quang Tr, Tam Cung tr ve Hue, rieng vua Ham Nghi, Ton That Thuyet va mot so quan lai, tng lanh van ngoai e tiep tuc khang chien.

      

Nhng en khi Nguyen Van Tng  va Ton That Thuyet a vua Ham Nghi ra khoi kinh thanh to chc cong cuoc khang chien th ngi phap a cung vi Trieu nh Hue chon ong Khanh at vao chiec ngai vang con  bo trong. [] Chanh phu Phap a thoa thuan vi Tam Cung, luc bay gi ang tru an tai Khiem cung (lang vua T c) e truat phe vua Ham Nghi va cong bo cho than dan trong nc eu biet. Sau o, ngay 07.9.1885, Chanh Mong c chon e thay the vua Ham Nghi vi s ong y cua Tam Cung, tng Cuocxy, tong tru s, Sampo, ngoai giao ac phai, va Nguyen Van Tng [trc khi Nguyen Van Tng b lu ay ngay 06.9.1885 TXA. ct.] (trch nguyen van bai viet cua GS. Bu Ke cung cuon sach nay, sd., tr. 59, e chen vao bai viet nay, cung cua chnh GS. Bu Ke).

                                                    

                                                                                                     

      (*) Chung toi a co nhieu luan c, luan chng e bac bo luan ieu m at ve cai goi la gian hung nay. Le ra, hoan toan khong nen tranh cai ve nhng luan ieu vu khong, boi nho, bi tranh cai nh the la mac mu cua chnh bon vu khong, boi nho  ay. (Cang khong nen b mua chuoc ma truyen ba luan ieu o). Luan ieu ai loai nh:

           Nc Nam co bon gian hung

           Tng gian, Viem lao, Khiem khung, Thuyet ngu

                (xem: VNVQS., li phe cua Hoang Trong Mau,

                chu thch cua Ch. Th., sd., tr. 305 306)

th tranh cai lam g! Lam the nao lai khong biet bon vu khong ay la ai! Chung ta tha biet bon nao a m at, reu rao ve nhng anh hung bi trang chong Phap la gian hung gian, gian hung lao, gian hung khung, gian hung ngu! Mu tr oi pho vi giac Phap, bon banh trng ai Han la gian ?! Thach o giac Tau, giac Tay (mac du cuoi i Hoang Ta Viem cc long trong noi trung quan va yen dan co phan ang trach) la lao ?! Chong giac bach quy, toc uoi sam nhng hi tam hoa mot chut, nh vo k luat, pham thng khi quan, la khung ?! Thi hanh an nhng ten vua, ten quan than Phap, va to chc khang chien, can vng, sat ta (loai ta ao ch thc thc dan, tay sai) la ngu ?! Xin hay so sanh bon nhan vat lch s ke tren vi nhng ten Viet gian, ca nhng ten ta ao ch thc trong giao dan ng thi thu bay gi (tng c at ten ng pho, ten trng hoc!!!) e thay ro thc chat cua luan ieu o! (Neu co the, vi y thc cong bang s hoc, xin hay lam mot phep tnh e so sanh tat ca cac nhan vat lch s cung thi vi ho).

       o la cha ke en 2 cau tiep theo cua 2 cau tren:

           Lai them hai thang vu phu

           e c, e Soan ging mu chu on!.

      Toan bo bai viet cua GS. Bu Ke a bac bo luan ieu gian hung  ay: Mot ngi nh Nguyen Van Tng khong the co ket thuc la mot ke gian hung, xet ve ieu kien khach quan (pha hoang toc, nhat la pha ke thu la Phap, la cac co ao thc dan) cung nh ve y nh chu quan cua ong. Mot lan na, xin vui long xem lai bai viet cua chung toi, Nguyen Van Tng vi nhiem vu lch s sau cuoc Kinh o Quat Khi 05.7.1885 va cac trch oan t t lieu chuan c NTL.CB. IV, V, VI., ac biet la cac t lieu goc trong cac k ay, cuon sach nay. TXA.

 

                                                                         GS. BU KE

                                            

                                          trch nguyen van va tron ven bai viet

trong CHUYEN TRIEU NGUYEN, Nxb. Thuan Hoa, 1990,

tr. 78 101.

 

 

Tren ay la cac trang t tr. 1 en tr. 173 thuoc cuon sach vi tnh ke tren.

Cuon sach con co phan phu luc (nguyen van "ai Nam thc luc", cac t lieu khac), t tr. 174 en tr. 262 (khong ke danh muc sach tham khao, muc luc, trang thu tuc...).

 

Toi se a len web nay hnh anh scan cac trang ban thao viet tay (thu but), neu thay can thiet.

Cung xin tha them: Hau het tac pham cua toi eu c viet tay (en nam 2002 mi mua may vi tnh).

 

Tran trong,

Tran Xuan An

17 gi 34', ngay 16-3 HB7 (2007)